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PostPosted: Tue Sep 01, 2009 8:18 pm 
s^al is a sex linked incomplete albinism. it croped up in my birds about 3 years ago from my cuckoo line of pekins. i am slowly finding out about it. there are a number of albino genes in poultry, some complete and some incomplete (where some colour shows through).

i am reasonably sure my birds are what is called s^al. this is because i have not produced one rooster yet and also because the chicks have a shorter stubbly down on hatching. other clues are that there is a very low hatch rate, the carrier rooster is not albino and this latest clue....red is unaffected.

the 's' in the gene nomenclature stands for the locus where the s+ (gold) and the S (silver gene attach to the chromosome). s^al is a mutaion causing an incomplete albinism, the chickens have pink eyes, gold is converted to white, black to grey, lavender to pale lavender and red almost unaffected.

red is governed by other genes other than the silver-gold genes, usually mahogany (Mh) but also autosomal red (AR) and recessive black (rb). in the book "poultry Breeding and genetics" by crawford it describes studies done on the various albino genes. the information tends to be scattered throughout the book. in one of the discussions on s^al it is mentioned how red can remain unaffected by the gene so this was an experiment to find out if it were so. i only managed to hatch 2 live albino chickens but will do the cross again. here are the results:

the father is the rooster on the left. he is barred and has a bluish tail (possibly related to the fact he is heterozygous s^al). 2 normal wheaten albino pekin hens are on the right:

Image

the following is the indian game RIR hen i crossed him too:

Image

the following are 2 non albino siblings from the cross. one at the momemnt is darker than the other which can be expected due to the fact we are not using pure homozygous parents and red can vary in shades of batches of chickens:

darker:

Image

lighter:

Image

here are the 2 albino chickens. i suspect the lighter one carries less mahogany but she does have a pink tinge to her in real life. the redder one had a much more coloured back than the lesser one at hatching:

Image

Image

the barring in the wing of the darker is from the barring gene. they are both wheaten.
k


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PostPosted: Tue Sep 01, 2009 9:24 pm 
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Old Mother Goose
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Interesting, have you seen a complete albino yet? I am curious if complete albino would turn all the flesh including comb and wattles white.

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PostPosted: Tue Sep 01, 2009 9:34 pm 
this albino is enough. i don't want any other varieties.

k


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PostPosted: Tue Sep 01, 2009 9:56 pm 
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probably better you don't see any then :rofl:

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PostPosted: Tue Sep 01, 2009 10:13 pm 
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Hi Ruff,

I find it intereting that the young are not barred? is the rooster also hetero for barring (B)? Also as a control couldn't you also breed him to an E black bird to prove the s^al theory? Just an idea, could be completly wrong.

Christian

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PostPosted: Tue Sep 01, 2009 10:24 pm 
the rooster has only one dose of barring, hence only half his offspring are barred. there is also the added problem of wheaten not showing barring properly.

i do have a black pekin with this rooster at the moment. the reason being is to see if he is carrying blue (he has a blue tail)or it is a result of the hetrozygous albino.

it is not easy to try and prove he is hetro for s^al. it is slow process of illimination of what previous studies have have not found. many of these studies are very brief also before the advent of cheap digital photography. many studies i think were done quickly to try and get a few results to make up a paper, the little things were often neglected for the hurry for publication ahead of th others or time constraints...or even just to add bulk to the chapters of books.

k


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PostPosted: Tue Sep 01, 2009 10:29 pm 
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Hi Ruff,

you are doing a great job, in the name of true science, you have no alterea motive and searching for the love of knowledge. You may not realise this but you are also teaching a large audience through this website and keeping our minds active. I have a craving for genetics since coming here, and you and your birds are a great inspiration. :thumbs:


Cheers

Christian

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PostPosted: Tue Sep 01, 2009 10:36 pm 
:oops: a shucks christian...

you must remember this site indulges me. i often am just talking to myself...or my ego. it beats doing these things all on my lonesome...AH becomes a pain sometimes when he argues back :lol:as he serves me strawberries and cream with cointreau poured over.

k


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PostPosted: Tue Sep 01, 2009 10:44 pm 
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Prime Pekin
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hey ruff,

I'll make this the only aside, you also have some of the coolest genes, i mean, lavander, albino, maybe dun I^D, it would surprise me if you find cream in your travels and experiments. And you say you are isolated up there, s*** if i had a population of diversity like you do running around your yard i would be in heaven. Like you say, time is the problem, but hey least your filling yours with tangible exciting things, where most initial visitor here are waiting for their first clutch of chicks, you are waiting for the right segregation and praying you dont have to breed another clutch to prove your theories right. Keep it up, for the fowl, but also for your own ego as long as it doesn't hurt others a little ego can take you along way.

Cheers and kindest regards

Christian

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PostPosted: Wed Sep 02, 2009 10:41 am 
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Prime Pekin
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Hi Ruff,
on closer inspection the chick on the right the darker one seems to have feint ghost barring on the wings, this could also be autosomal barring chicks get when carrying some patterning genes right? keep us posted i'm off to clean some pens.

Cheers


Christian

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PostPosted: Wed Sep 02, 2009 12:38 pm 
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Gallant Game
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s^al –sex-linked imperfect albinism

The following to give you an idea of s^al on wild type:

From the following url -
Mutations in SLC45A2 Cause Plumage Color Variation in Chicken and Japanese Quail – Figure 1]
Image
FIGURE 1.—
Chickens expressing the wild type (S*N), Silver (S*S), and sex-linked imperfect albinism (S*AL) phenotypes.


The above from the following research paper:

GUNNARSSON, U., A. R. HELLSTROM, M. TIXIER-BOICHARD, F. MINVIELLE, B. BED'HOM et al., 2007 Mutations in SLC45A2 cause plumage color variation in chicken and Japanese quail. Genetics. 175: 867–877
Full Report -link

---------------------
In the following French chicken genetics book (see page 78) – photo of s^al e+ chick down:
http://www.quae.com/en/googlebookview/? ... gnvBWYtdgC

* On page 92 (above French book) there is a photo of a s^al pullet - side view, & showing eye colour.

-------------------------
I’ll paste the following description again, so we can see why the variation in phenotypes.

Poultry Breeding & Genetics, p 146, s^al:
http://books.google.com.au/books?id=VMSF7m2CFTEC&pg=PA146&dq=s+al+imperfect+albinism#v=onepage&q=s%20al%20imperfect%20albinism&f=false

Quote:
Sex-linked albinism was designated ‘imperfect’ by Mueller and Hutt (1941) because it did not completely eliminate pigment in the Barred Plymouth Rock where it was first found. Such mutants were described as ghost-barred. They reported that downs varied from almost pure white to dusky chocolate….
…the albino phenotype on an E background is a light grayish tan in both down and adult plumage, while on a red Columbian background, the down is creamy coloured and adult feathers are tinged with red pigment….
Eye colour varies from light pink to darker reddish shades


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PostPosted: Wed Sep 02, 2009 7:40 pm 
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Am I the only one wondering about the following being candidates for mix up:
sex linked dilution
sex linked albinism
sex linked chocolate

If I were your professor at the chicken genetics institute I would say:

You have to get rid of all other black diluters like blue, lavender, dun in your experiment.
Get pure black stock (not carrying any of these or recessive white).
Mate a black roo to your albino's to produce black split cockerels.

Cross these to pure black hens.
You should not get any lavenders, blues, duns then.
If albinos show up they could not be combinations of sexlinked chocolate with those black diluters.


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PostPosted: Wed Sep 02, 2009 8:16 pm 
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Hey, just a quick question: With your wheaten albino hens in the first pic - what colour eyes do they have? Are they born with pink eyes only to have it change to another colour at weeks / months / years old? I have a little one that I thought was lavender wheaten but it's so pale I've been questioning the input of an albino gene for the past few weeks, not pink eyes though. Also, thought it was a girl but my brother swears it's a boy - large comb but just so pale. Might do pics tomorrow across the yard and post on a new topic.

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PostPosted: Thu Sep 03, 2009 1:07 am 
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Yes Henk. I agree. Need to get rid of all other diluters of eumelanin to finally see the phenotype of the mutation on eumelanin (the same with the dun hen - cross to black). Plus, need to get rid of the red enhancer - as s^al does dilute phaeomelanin (gold/salmon) also. Of course I would love to see the mutation on wild type, but with eWh, eumelanin restrictors -possibly Db, maybe Co (the non-red eyed chicks, chick down is very pale for eWh Co s+ though, ie usually buff, not cream), plus possibly Mh in the rooster, there isn't going to be much eumelanin in F1's. And with the red enhancer - it messes up going on phaeomelanin dilution alone.

As we have a rooster as the test bird, therefore multiple partners possible this time. How about throwing in the mix a Silver, Slow feathering hen (S-K)? Both S and s+ are dominant to s^al - so this won't make any difference with het. s^al roosters. But the S locus is very closely linked (1.1 cM) to K - slow feathering locus, therefore you can track carriers of s^al & fast feathering (s^al-k+) in future generations with the cockerels :wink: . You can wean this slow-feathering/silver cockerels out at a very early age. Plus you will be testing the mutation whether allelic to S locus, in the process. And s^al/- females can be identified from S -silver, by eye-colour as chicks.


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PostPosted: Thu Sep 03, 2009 7:29 am 
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Hi KazJaps,


you are good.


Christian

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