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PostPosted: Wed Nov 03, 2010 11:46 am 
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Wise One
Wise One

Joined: Fri Oct 10, 2008 9:36 pm
Posts: 2721
The following basic information has been compiled for those interested in colour genetics with the hope that it assists understanding. As detail has always eluded myself (& I'm a colour genetics novice too) there will be error so any corrections will be most welcomed. I start from the beginning because that helps with understanding. If you would like to contribute a "suitable" example colour/breed photo (preferably side shots) then please post a link to it in this thread. If you would like to see colour/pattern/genotypes added simply let it be known in this thread.

The cells; Somatic & Gamete, plus brief introduction to Chromosomes & Genes
Ducks are multicellular organisms with many different types of cells making up the different tissues of their bodies, for example, red blood cells, white blood cells, bone cells, skin cells, liver cells, muscle cells, & sperm & ova (egg) cells etc. For ease of understanding these cells can be grouped into two main categories; Somatic cells (eg liver, muscle, skin, bone etc), & Gamete cells (ie sperm & ovum (or eggs)). See diagrams below:-

Blue/yellow = somatic cells. Red = sperm cells (in testicles)
Image

Pink/yellow = somatic cells. Red = egg (ova) cells (in ovaries)
Image

Within both groups of cells (somatic & gamete) are nuclei, & within the nuclei are the Chromosomes (ie long strands of DNA). Chromosomes are composed (in part) of many genes, ie, units of heredity that code for all of the genetic traits in the living organism, for example, shape, size, & colour. In Ducks, Somatic cells have 80 chromosomes or 40 pair, while the Gametes only have 40 chromosomes in total ie only one chromosome from each pair. See diagram below:-
Image

The Somatic cells divide in such a way (Mitosis) that they retain two copies of each chromosome (diploid number) ie the chromosomes occur in homologous pairs. One member of each pair comes from the father, while the other member of each pair comes from the mother:-
Image

Some pairs of chromosomes in somatic cells: taken from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Karyotype_color_chromosomes_white_background.png)
Image

But the Gametes have divided in such a way (Meiosis) that they each only have one copy of each pair (haploid number) of chromosomes that usually occur in the somatic cells:-
Image

How the Body Works : Gamete Cells

And a diagram of a human sperm & egg with their half compliments of chromosomes for example only: taken from http://members.cox.net/amgough/Fanconi-genetics-genetics-primer.htm http://members.cox.net/amgough/Fanconi-genetics-genetics-primer.htm (*broken link unparsed - Admin)
Image

While many of the specialized somatic cells continue to divide & maintain the various body tissues, it is the gametes which transfer the genetic material from both parents to the new life via chromosomes/genes. When the gametes (sperm & egg) fuse @ fertilisation, the diploid number or pairs of chromosomes are again restored in the first new cell (Zygote) of the new life. See digram below:-
Image

Gene & Chromosome pairs, plus brief introduction to Dominant/Recessive states
Genes, like chromosomes, usually occur in pairs. Genes which occur @ the same position (locus) on a pair of homologous chromosomes are called alleles. An allele is one of two or more alternative forms of a gene @ any given locus. See diagram below:-
Image

Alleles which are of the same form & code for the same trait are said to be homozygous, while Alleles which are of a different form & code for different traits are said to be heterozygous. See diagram below:-
Image

Some alleles are more dominant than others. See tutorial & diagrams below:-

Incomplete Dominance and Codominance - A Quick Tutorial

For the trait to express (be seen) recessive alleles need to be in the homozygous state (except for sex-linked genes in the female duck). Homozygous recessive white in Mallard derived birds for example:-
Image

But in the white heterozygote, the more dominant wild-type or "not-white" (C+) gene will express over its recessive white allele (c):-
Image

Biology: Mendel: Alternate Alleles

Sex determining Chromosomes, Autosomes, & Sex-Linked Inheritance
Chromosomes are divided into Autosomal Chromosomes & Sex-determining Chromosomes. Autosomal chromosomes are non sex-determining & are all chromosomes that aren't Z or w. The sex-determining chromosomes (Z & w) are sex-determining in that if a new life has only inherited Z sex chromosomes it will be male, but if the new life has inherited both Z & w sex chromosomes it will be female. Male ducks (birds) can only pass Z sex chromosomes to their progeny, both male & female, because being genetically ZZ, they only have Z sex chromosomes to give. Female ducks (birds) can pass on either Z or w sex chromosomes to their progeny because being genetically Zw, they have both Z & w sex chromosomes to give. As such, the mother determines the sex of her young because if she passes on a Z sex chromosome to a duckling it will be a boy (ZZ, Z from dad & Z from mom), but if the mother passes a small w sex chromosome to a duckling it will be a girl (Zw, Z from dad & w from mum).

Paired sex determining chromosomes for ducks (females)
Image

Paired sex determining chromosomes for drakes
Image

Comparison sample of a drake & ducks diploid chromosomes including sex-determining pairs:-
Image

Sex-determining chromosome inheritance as per diagram below:-
Image

The female is "hemizygous" for the two identified sex-linked colour genes/alleles (bu & Bu+, & d & D+)! This is because the Z sex chromosome inherited from the father has loci for these genes/alleles, but the w sex chromosome inherited from the mother doesn't have the same loci (-), so the d/D+, bu/Bu+ genes/alleles can't be inherited by a daughter from their mothers on the w sex chromosome. Although a female duck does have a pair of sex chromosomes (Zw), she can only ever have one sex linked gene @ each locus for Bu & D. See diagram below:-
Image

Below are the pair of sex chromosomes for a duck (Zw). On the Z chromosome you will see the recessive brown dilution gene. We know from above that she passes her Z chromosomes onto her sons & her small w chromosomes onto her daughters, so all of her sons will inherit a recessive brown dilution gene but none of her daughters will because the small w chromosomes that she passes to them doesn't have the locus for a recessive brown gene. Although this duck only has the one recessive brown gene (d) on her sex chromosomes the colour will still express because there is no competition from the dominant "not brown" allele (D+).
Image

Below are a pair of sex chromosomes from a drake (ZZ). Here you will see that both Z chromosomes have the recessive brown dilution gene. He only has Z chromosomes to give & will pass them plus their recessive brown dilution gene onto both male & female progeny.
Image

All ducklings produced from the above two "pure for recessive brown dilution gene" birds will inherit the gene. Being a recessive, the males need two doses for the trait to express, while the females, being hemizygous, only require the one dose for the trait to express.
Image

The following pair of birds are different though. This time, the drake is still pure for the sex-linked recessive brown dilution gene (d/d), but the duck has its allele "not brown" or wild-type (D+/-):-

The d/d drake
Image

The D+/- duck
Image

The diagram below shows the sex-linked qualities of such a mating. Female progeny inherit a brown-dilution gene (d) from their father & being hemizygous, nothing (-) from their mother. The colour trait brown will express (if not hidden by white). Male progeny inherit a brown dilution gene (d) from their father, but also the not brown allele (D+) from their mother. Being the dominant allele, "D+" will suppress the action of its recessive brown allele "d", so, drakelets will not express the trait for brown, but they will carry one recessive brown dilution gene hidden.
Image

And some photos to help illustrate:-
Image

Working with Colour/Pattern Genes of the Mallard derived bird
The genes for colour/pattern in Mallard derived birds follow. They include the wild-type (those genes found in the original wild mallard) as denoted by the (+), & mutations. The alleles have been grouped together eg M+, MR, & md are alleles (according to their loci), with upper case denoting the more dominant allele:-

M+ = Wild-type Mallard
MR = Restricted Mallard
md = Dusky mallard

Li+ = Dark Phase
li = Light Phase
lih = Harlequin Phase

so+ = wild-type
So = Sooty; darkens dusky & wild pattern plumage

e+ = not black
E = Extended Black

bl+ = not blue
Bl = Blue Dilution

D+ = not brown
d = Brown Dilution (sex-linked) {? sex-linked buff dilution allele, ie, wild-type > brown dilution > buff dilution} Are brown & buff dilutions the same factor? Can they be seperated?

Bu+ = not buff
bu = Buff Dilution (sex-linked) {? sex-linked brown dilution allele, ie, wild-type > brown dilution > buff dilution} Are buff & brown dilutions the same factor? Can they be seperated?

C+ = not white
c = recessive white

s+ = not bibbed
S = dominant bib

B+ = not bibbed
b = recessive bib

W+ = not white primaries
w = white primaries

r+ = not pied
R = pied pattern

y+ = normal yellow skin & bill colour
Y = white skin & bill

sd+ = not solid dark bill
Sd = solid dark bill colour {? in the presence of dark phase genes only, ie, light/harlequin phase gene combinations epistatic to "heterozygous" Sd/sd+ resulting in birds exhibiting light (generally) coloured bills?}

The full sequence of colour/pattern genes for a Mallard drake that is pure for wild-type may look something like this:-
M+/M+, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.

And the full sequence of colour/pattern genes for a Mallard duck that is pure for wild-type may look something like this:-
M+/M+, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/-, Bu+/-, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.

Often when discussing the “colour/pattern genotype” of birds we don’t see or use the full sequence of genes, but rather, a shorthand version. So instead of for example (drake):-
md/md, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, Bl/bl+, d/d, bu/bu, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+

we may only see:-
md/md, Bl/bl+, d/d, bu/bu

Why? Because only the genes that deviate from the wild-type, ie, the mutations, really need to be listed as the remainder of the colour genotype is assumed to be wild-type.

When we see strings of letters like those above we are simply looking @ genes on chromosomes. For example, M+/md represents a pair of genes on a pair of chromosomes @ a specific locus seperated by a forward slash (/). One chromosome/gene has been inherited from one parent & the other chromosome/gene has been inherited from the other parent ie M+ is the wild-type gene (on its chromosome) inherited from one parent, & md is a mutated gene inherited from the other parent (on its chromosome). This pair of genes are alleles because they occur @ the same position (locus) on the pair of homologous chromosomes. See diagram below:-
Image

The Mallard Series Alleles (wild-type = M+, restricted = M^R, dusky = m^d)
The Mallard series alleles influence pattern/colour as per the following:-

Wild-Type Mallard (M+); ducklings exhibit the typical camouflage pattern as seen in the wild-type young including ocular stripes (eye-lines), four dorsal spots & ventral yellow. The dorsal surface down colour has been described as "olivacious black". As adults, the female typically has the eye-stripes & brown pencilled plumage, while the drake has the full hood, claret breast, & neck ring in nuptial plumage.

Restricted Mallard (M^R); most evident in the ducklings down, the restricted gene restricts superficial dorsal surface dark down pigmentation to the head (mohark) & tail areas with some variation occuring. Investigating deeper into the down will show a darker undercolour. In the adults the main variation from wild-type is seen in the wing fronts/bows (smaller coverts) with more white being evident.

Dusky Mallard (m^d); dusky duckling down pattern varies considerably from the wild-type mallard & restricted mallard above. Dark pigment is extended uniformly over the dorsal surface with no evidence of facial markings & dorsal spots being evident. Ventral surface areas, although lighter, still exhibit colour other than dull yellow, with bill & legs being dark-ish also. As adults, the males in nuptial plumage lack claret breast & neck rings (dark phase), & the speculum (iridescent wing bars) are obscured & less clearly defined. Dusky females (& males in eclipse plumage) lack the eye-stripes, & both sexes are pigmented underwing (dark & light phase).

Mallard Series Alleles discussed in more detail here (PDF) http://www.genetics.org/cgi/reprint/19/4/310.pdf

The Phase Alleles (dark phase = Li+, light phase = li, harlequin phase = li^h)
Generally, the effect of the phase alleles(Li+, li, lih) on the mallard series alleles (M+, MR, md) is to progressively lighten/brighten, or increase the amount of white, usually very noticable on the females, but other colour/pattern traits are also altered. Some examples using the wild-type mallard (M+) gene & each of the phase alleles to demonstrate:-

M+/M+, Li+/Li+ = a dark phase wild-type mallard eg Rouen or Grey Mallard. Typically the darkest females http://www.feathersite.com/Poultry/Ducks/Rouens/BRKRouens.html

M+/M+, li/li = light phase wild-type mallard eg Trout Runner or Rouen Claire. Lighter than above http://www.feathersite.com/Poultry/Ducks/RouenClair/BRKRouenClair.html

M+/M+, li/lih (theoretically) = light/harlequin phase wild-type mallard eg Australian Spotted. The lightest/brightest of the three http://www.avianweb.com/australianspottedducks.html

I usually think of the mallard series alleles (MR, M+, md) & the phase alleles (Li+, li, lih) as the “base genes” & those I begin with when building/creating the colour/pattern of a bird. They can occur in any combination resulting in the varied & "off" phenotypes that we see when impure. The mutations @ the other loci when added contribute to the wonderful array of colour & pattern in mallard derives breeds/varieties.

A few examples using base series (MR, M+, md) & phase (Li+, li, lih) genes to illustrate. Remember, when using shorthand those gene pairs not listed are assumed to be wild-type:-
1/ M+/M+, Li+/Li+ = dark-phase wild-type mallard eg Rouen
2/ M+/M+, li/li = light-phase wild-type mallard eg Trout
3/ M+/M+, lih/lih = harlequin-phase wild-type mallard eg Snowy (per American standard)
4/ MR/MR, Li+/Li+ = non-standard genotype (off-coloured)
5/ MR/MR, li/li = light-phase restricted mallard eg Appleyard
6/ MR/MR, lih/lih = non-standard genotype (off-coloured)
7/ md/md, Li+/Li+ = dark-phase dusky mallard eg Dark Campbell
8/ md/md, li/li = non-standard genotype (off-coloured)
9/ md/md, lih/lih = harlequin-phase dusky mallard eg Abacot Ranger

Now add diluting/pattern modifying genes to a couple of them for example:-
1/ M+/M+, li/li, Bl/Bl = apricot/buff light-phase wild-type mallard eg Saxony
2/ md/md, Li+/Li+, d/d (d/-) = brown dark-phase dusky mallard eg Kharki Campbell
3/ M+/M+, Li+/Li+, Bl/bl+ = blue dark-phase wild-type mallard eg Blue Fawn
4/ md/md, Li+/Li+, d/d (d/-), R/R = brown pied dark-phase dusky mallard eg Fawn & White Runner

Purity & Impurity
The colour/pattern genes which exist in any given bird will influence what we see (phenotype) as regards colour/pattern. When pure for a certain breed/variety colour/pattern, then we should see what we have become accustomed to seeing for that breed/variety. But many times we will see some small variation regardless, possibly due to variable expression of the gene/s or the influence of unknown minor modifiers. Birds that are impure @ one or more loci may also express in "off" colours/patterns. Lets look @ a couple of examples of pure & impure colour genotypes starting with the pure wild-type bird ie the wild Mallard or Rouen. All mutations are in red for ease of identification.

A wild-type coloured/patterned drakes genotype should as we know it be:-
M+/M+, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
All paired genes in the above genotype are wild-type as designated by the (+) symbol. This bird is pure @ all loci for paired genes because each pair are the same (homozygous), eg M+/M+. There is nothing hidden because all recessive pairs are pure so the trait/s should express, eg e+/e+.

But what about a bird who is impure @ one or more loci? The following drake’ genotype is impure @ two loci! He is heterozygous Li+/li & C+/c so what will he look like? According to theory, he should really look much like the wild-type Mallard drake above. Both mutations li & c are recessive to their alleles Li+ & C+ so should have little to no influence on phenotype. If we can‘t see them (heterozygous recessives) but they are there then we could say that they are hidden:-
M+/M+, Li+/li, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/c, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.

The following drake is pure @ all loci including the recessive white mutation c, ie, homozygous c/c. When pure, the recessive white gene either inhibits the production of colour (eumelanin & pheomelanin), or it prevents the colour from getting into the feather, so we end up with a bird with no colour, ie a pure for white bird:-
M+/M+, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, c/c, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.

The following drake has mutations @ two loci! Firstly, he is pure (homozygous) for the extended black mutation gene E, & secondly, he is impure (heterozygous) for the blue dilution mutation gene Bl, so what will he look like? The extended black gene will “extend” black pigment (eumelanin) throughout the whole bird, so the wild-type coloured/patterned mallard will be turned into a black bird. But he won’t remain black because of the blue dilution gene! The blue dilution gene is incompletely dominant, ie, it doesn’t completely get rid of the black but only reduces its intensity by inhibiting the amount of eumalanin that gets into the feather, so we end up with a diluted black ie blue/grey:-
M+/M+, Li+/Li+, E/E, Bl/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.

Calculating Probable Outcomes Using Punnett Squares
Punnett Squares are a fun & easy way to calculate the probable trait outcomes of your breeding programs if you know the typical genes & their behaviour in the breeds you keep. A couple of examples using Punnett Squares may help. Mutations will be highlighted in red.

Lets say that we mate a wild-type Mallard drake to a Blue Fawn Mallard duck:-
Drake = M+/M+, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+. :-
Duck = M+/M+, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, Bl/bl+, D+/-, Bu+/-, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.

We want to work out what colours we will get from this cross & we only need to consider the blue (Bl) & the not-blue (bl+) genes (alleles). Using our Punnett Square we can put the drakes alleles down the left hand side & the ducks alleles across the top:-
Image

One more example; we breed together two birds that both appear to be pure wild-type Mallards but each carries hidden (heterozygous) a recessive white gene (c):-
Drake = M+/M+, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/c, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Duck = M+/M+, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/-, Bu+/-, C+/c, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.

Using the Punnett Square we learn that 25% of progeny will be pure white, 25% pure for wild-type, & 50% will appear wild-type coloured/patterned birds but will carry heterozygous recessive white hidden.
Image

So you see, if we know what colour/pattern genes are in our parent birds & we know how these effect colour/pattern, we can calculate probable outcomes using the Punnett Sqare.

These Youtube clips are also very helpful:-

Gregor Mendel's Punnett Squares

Mendelian Genetics - A Quick Tutorial

Incomplete Dominance and Codominance - A Quick Tutorial

http://www.schooltrainer.com/study-material/biology/punnett-square-fun.html


Some Genotypes with Photo examples
Following are some photos of birds & their theorised genotypes. All mutations are in red for ease of identification. It is worth being aware that genotypes may vary somewhat between breeds with the same “hobby” name in different countries. Quality for type may not be to standard for some example birds; colour & pattern are the desired features portrayed!

Wild-type Mallard Drake (grey)
M+/M+, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to C. Claus

Wild-type Mallard Duck (grey)
M+/M+, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/-, Bu+/-, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to C. Claus

Kharki Campbell Drake (dark phase dusky + brown dilution)
md/md, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, d/d, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to K. Reimers

Kharki Campbell Duck (dark phase dusky + brown dilution)
md/md, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, d/-, Bu+/-, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to K. Reimers

Dark Campbell Drake (dark phase dusky) (This bird is D+/d)
md/md, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image

Dark Campbell Duck (dark phase dusky)
md/md, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/-, Bu+/-, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image

Fawn & White Runners (dark phase dusky + brown dilution + runner pattern (USA = add homo blue))
md/md, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, d/d, (d/-), Bu+/-, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, R/R, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to Roova

Elizabeth (? light/harlequin phase dusky + ?)
I haven't found any substantial information on the colour genetics of this breed. Birds used in developing the Elizabeth breed, & therefore possible gene influence, described as Rouen Claire (RC) & "farmyard ducks" (info sourced from first edition APS p. 148). It would appear that recessive dusky factor was in the mix. Elizabeth ducks could well have light phase genes inherited from (but not necessarily) the RC, themselves light phase wild-types. Influencing factor/s for extended claret & full off white neck band seen in the drakes not clear if no harlequin gene involvement? Query variable gene expression/minor modifiers/unknown factors enabling selection for desirable colour/pattern traits? There is also pigment restriction on the wing front evident in some birds? Brown dilution is not in their colour geneotype.
Image
With thanks to koljash

Image
With thanks to koljash

Image
With thanks to koljash

Silver Appleyard Drake (light phase resticted mallard)
MR/MR, li/li, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image

Silver Appleyard Duck (light phase resticted mallard)
MR/MR, li/li, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/-, Bu+/-, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to RnBs WATERFOWL

Saxony Drake (light phase wild-type mallard + homo blue dilution)
M+/M+, li/li, e+/e+, Bl/Bl, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image

Saxony Duck (light phase wild-type mallard + homo blue dilution)
M+/M+, li/li, e+/e+, Bl/Bl, D+/-, Bu+/-, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image

Trout (light phase wild-type mallard)
M+/M+, li/li, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to RnBs WATERFOWL

Image
With thanks to bitch

Blue Trout (light phase wild-type mallard + hetero blue dilution)
M+/M+, li/li, e+/e+, Bl/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to RnBs WATERFOWL

Blue Fawn (dark phase wild-type mallard + hetero blue dilution)
M+/M+, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, Bl/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to koljash

Image
With thanks to koljash

Pastel (dark phase wild-type mallard + homo blue dilution)
M+/M+, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, Bl/Bl, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Photo wanted

Harlequin (harlequin phase dusky)
md/md, lih/lih, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to RnBs WATERFOWL

Welsh Harlequin (harlequin phase dusky + brown dilution)
md/md, lih/lih, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, d/d, (d/-), Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to bushwacker

Image
With thanks to bushwacker

Buff Orpington (dark phase dusky + brown, buff, + hetero blue dilution)
md/md, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, Bl/bl+, d/d, (d/-), bu/bu, (bu/-), C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Photo wanted

Black Swedish Drake (extended black + dominant bib? + white primaries)
E/E, bl+/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, S/S, B+/B+, w/w, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to 70%cocoa (& breeder, Booth)

Black Swedish Duck
E/E, bl+/bl+, D+/-, Bu+/-, C+/C+, S/S, B+/B+, w/w, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to 70%cocoa

Showing wing extended & the two white outer primaries; a requirement of the Australian Poultry Standard
Image
With thanks to 70%cocoa

Young Blue Swedish Drake (extended black + hetero blue dilution + dominant bib? + white primaries) Note black leakage
E/E, Bl/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, S/S, B+/B+, w/w, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to 70%cocoa

Blue Swedish Duck (extended black + hetero blue dilution + dominant bib? + white primaries) Note black leakage
E/E, Bl/bl+, D+/-, Bu+/-, C+/C+, S/S, B+/B+, w/w, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to 70%cocoa (& breeder, Booth)

Silver Swedish Drake (extended black + homo blue dilution + dominant bib? + white primaries) Compare with Silver below
E/E, Bl/Bl, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, S/S, B+/B+, w/w, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to 70%cocoa

Silver Swedish Duck (extended black + homo blue dilution + dominant bib? + white primaries) Compare with Silver above
E/E, Bl/Bl, D+/-, Bu+/-, C+/C+, S/S, B+/B+, w/w, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image
With thanks to 70%cocoa

Blue (extended black + hetero blue dilution)
E/E, Bl/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Photo wanted

Silver/Splash (extended black + homo blue dilution)
E/E, Bl/Bl, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Photo wanted

Chocolate (extended black + sex-linked brown dilution)
E/E, bl+/bl+, d/d, (d/-), Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image

Bibbed (any colour + gene for bibbing)
M+/M+, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, S/S, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Photo wanted

Runner Pattern (any colour + pied/runner pattern gene)
md/md, Li+/Li+, e+/e+, bl+/bl+, d/d, (d/-), Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, R/R, y+/y+.
Photo wanted

Magpie Pattern (any colour + pied/runner pattern + bibbed genes)
E/E, bl+/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, S/S, B+/B+, W+/W+, R/R, y+/y+.
Photo wanted

White
Epistatic to "colour/pattern" when homozygous. With birds that are pure for the recessive white gene it doesn't matter what "colour" or "pattern" genes exist because the expression of both will be inhibited, hence, a white (no colour) plumaged bird will result.
c/c.
Photo wanted

Black
Extended black will turn all pigmented areas to black. Both homozygotes & heterozygotes are affected (although unsure as to just how completely heterozygotes are affected?). Homozygous recessive white (c/c) will turn a black bird to white. Diluters & Pattern genes will influence colour/pattern.
E/E, bl+/bl+, D+/D+, Bu+/Bu+, C+/C+, s+/s+, B+/B+, W+/W+, r+/r+, y+/y+.
Image


Miscellaneous

Dusky
What differs between the following Duskies? What did the original adult wild Dusky look like? A recent review of limited available information tends to indicate that drakes were grey, similar to the grey wild-type, but generally absent for the white neck ring & claret bib (maybe not always though?), & no eye-stripes on ducks (females) (Colour Breeding in Domestic Ducks, Mike & Chris Ashton, 2007, p. 19; Alleles of the Mallard Plumage Pattern in Ducks, R. George Jaap, 1933, pp. 310, 313 – 314 Here). Additionally, in the population under study in JAAP’ paper it was found that, “the secondary coverts have more white” (p. 314). Jaap also goes on to say that “The only part of the plumage in which dusky invariably differs from mallard is the ventral wing surface. In dusky this region is always pigmented. Furthermore, the feather pattern is similar to that of the body, while in mallard it is white” (p. 314). If Dusky Mallard drakes absent for other mutations are in fact grey in body similar to wild-types, then any deviation from grey could represent some additional modifying factor/s being present? The dusky birds pictured below represent a small sample of the variety to be found. Can/do other mutations present in the mix alter dusky pattern expression in some instances?
Image (borrowed from Here)

Image (borrowed from Here)

And these? (Drake is D+/d)
Image

Image

The above pair of bc1 produced dark duskies late 2010 bred, both out of an F1 bred dark dusky drake (khaki drake x imported dark dusky duck bred) x khaki duck. The bc1 drake x back over the khaki duck produced the following late 2011 bred bc2 dark dusky birds (khaki also), both sexes. The F1 bred dark dusky drake (D+/d) wasn't as dark, but wasn't all grey either? The first & second backcross drake progeny (D+/d) are a very dark "bronze-ish-brown" ventrally & do not have any grey @ all. If more (broader) lighter feather ground colour ventrally (lighter lacing on the females) then a more even under-colour effect; if less (narrower) lighter ground colour, then a darker, mottled under-colour effect. The ducks are a very dark (black hood) even colour with minor variations in amount of golden lacing ventrally, & absent for grey. Otherwise, colour/pattern has remained consistent. Unfortunately, they do not meet the Australian standards requirements for colour/pattern!
Image

Image

Image

Image

And these? (F1s; purebred Khaki drake x imported dark dusky duck bred)
m^d/m^d, Li+/?, D+/d
Image

m^d/m^d, Li+/?, D+/d
Image

m^d/?, Li+/?, D+/?
Image

And these!
m^d/m^d, Li+/Li+, d/d
Image

m^d/m^d, Li+/Li+, d/-
Image
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

M+/m^d, Li+/li, Bl/bl+, D+/- (Saxony drake x dark Dusky bred)
Image
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

m^d/?, Li+/?, Bl/bl+, d/- (Khaki drake m^d/m^d, Li+/Li+, d/d x duck M+/m^d, Li+/li, Bl/bl+, D+/- bred)
Image

References
"Poultry breeding and genetics", By Roy D. Crawford, pp 381-387.
Poultry Genetics for the Nonprofessional, Sellers family http://sellers.kippenjungle.nl/page0.html
http://kippenjungle.nl/Overzicht.htm#kipcalculator
"Mosby’s Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary", 1994
"Storey's Guide to Raising Ducks", Holderread, 2001.
"Storey's Guide to Raisind Ducks", Holderread, 2011.
http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/resource-room/genetics/all/chromosome.htm
"Colour Breeding in Domestic Ducks", Mike & Chris Ashton, 2007
The Domestic Duck", Chris & Mike Ashton, 2008
http://www.genetics.com.au/pdf/factsheets/fs01.pdf
http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/resources/genetic/diploid-chromosome-numbers-in-some-familiar-animals
"Biology: Concepts & Aplications", by Cecie Starr, Wadsworth Publishing Company, California, 1991.

Edited to correct error/add photos/add information


Last edited by rollyard on Fri Mar 07, 2014 8:16 am, edited 29 times in total.

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PostPosted: Wed Nov 03, 2010 1:30 pm 
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Wise Wyandotte
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Very good info Ross!

I shall have a good read. I have stickied it for the time being, and it will be added to the duck keeping index. Thank you for your time and effort!

Honk

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PostPosted: Wed Nov 03, 2010 1:47 pm 
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Junior Champion Bird
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Interesting. :claps: Is this a project of sorts or do you have a lot of free time on your hands?
Once finished I vote this is added to BYP resources.

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PostPosted: Wed Nov 03, 2010 2:12 pm 
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Great Game
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Well done mate; much better than I could even attempt to do! now, get to work on the scovies! :biggrin:

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PostPosted: Wed Nov 03, 2010 2:14 pm 
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Discerning Duck
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Absolutely awesome! Thank you so much for sharing something with us you've put so much time and effort in to. Do you only want photos of purebred ducks? Do you also want photos of parents and resulting offspring? Down and adult plumage?

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PostPosted: Wed Nov 03, 2010 10:26 pm 
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Wise One
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I couldn't find this for a minute, cheers TOH

Symbungee, not a lot of free time, you could say that this has evolved over some time. Cheers Natobeth & Roova; good points, I guess photos of standard type coloured birds & variations would be helpful. Mixed birds of unknown breeding would be a bit of a guessing game, crossbreeds from pure birds may be interesting though. Photos of duckling down colours/patterns for breed/variety/genotype is a good idea & could be added if photos offered.

Regards


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PostPosted: Wed Nov 03, 2010 10:40 pm 
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Prime Pekin
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Its so much easier seeing it all like this than in my $60 book rollyard. Thank you for all your time and the work that went into this. You write in a way that is very easy to follow. Well done. It may be a sticky...But I have bookmarked it too - as I know I will want to refer to it often.

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PostPosted: Thu Nov 04, 2010 7:52 am 
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Wise One
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I know you have an interest in Mallard colours Taylorducks & my time taken was well worth it if info helps

Cheers


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PostPosted: Mon Nov 08, 2010 2:37 pm 
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Fiesty Fowl
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Ross, you can use our abacot ranger drake pic from the gallery if you like.

and the links to feathersite?? there are pics of rouen clairs in with the rouens, which might be confussing for some? the rouen clair link, well the ducks nice, but the drakes along way from looking like a rouen clair.again you can use the pic of our drake if you like as his colour and pattern met the requirements for the breed. and then right below that link is this one
M+/M+, lih/lih = harlequin phase wild-type mallard ie Snowy. The lightest/brightest of the three http://www.feathersite.com/Poultry/Duck ... nowyF.JPEG
if that bird is M+/M+, where does it get its slate coloured bill from?

i think you may have missed out trouts in the section where you've asked for pics too?

good job :thumbs: , although i feel that much info my confuse some poeple more than they already are :mrgreen:

and a little bit of info on the side, slightly off topic, i have some pics from Mike and Chris A. of butterscotch apples where they've managed to breed out the face markings on the drakes, and we have a standard coloured apple drake here hatched this year that also lacks the face markings, this suggests the face markings on apple drakes may not be the result of (MR) and that another modifier gene is responsible??


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PostPosted: Mon Nov 08, 2010 5:09 pm 
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Wise One
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Hi Richard, thank you for the constructive feedback, it is appreciated

RnBs WATERFOWL wrote:
Ross, you can use our abacot ranger drake pic from the gallery if you like.

That is excellent, will edit him in asap.


RnBs WATERFOWL wrote:
and the links to feathersite?? there are pics of rouen clairs in with the rouens, which might be confussing for some? the rouen clair link, well the ducks nice, but the drakes along way from looking like a rouen clair.again you can use the pic of our drake if you like as his colour and pattern met the requirements for the breed. and then right below that link is this one
M+/M+, lih/lih = harlequin phase wild-type mallard ie Snowy. The lightest/brightest of the three http://www.feathersite.com/Poultry/Duck ... nowyF.JPEG
if that bird is M+/M+, where does it get its slate coloured bill from?

Yes, those links weren't ideal I know. As time permits will try to replace with better examples if I can find something. Ideally, I only wanted to use females, & photos of standard quality birds supplied by other members would be best.

The snowy isn't M+ based but rather dusky m^d. I knew it would be picked up sooner or later. One text I have does suggest Snowies to be M+ based, but another very reliable source (American) has told me that most Snowies in the states are duskies (m^d/m^d, li^h/li^h). I guess the main intention here was to highlight the progressive effects of the phase genes on the mallard series. If I can't find a wild-type snowy, will change for an Australian Spotted (M+/M+, li/li^h), unless another suggestion offered?

RnBs WATERFOWL wrote:
i think you may have missed out trouts in the section where you've asked for pics too?

I put in genotypes ad-lib with intention of adding as required. You have a nice trout drake & if I could use his pic would be all the push I need to add the genotype :biggrin:

RnBs WATERFOWL wrote:
although i feel that much info my confuse some poeple more than they already are :mrgreen:

I agree, particularly when first starting to learn, & I remember the huge difficulty I had (& still do). I guess this has been my attemp to help. I think reading widely & often (exposure) is the key.

RnBs WATERFOWL wrote:
and a little bit of info on the side, slightly off topic, i have some pics from Mike and Chris A. of butterscotch apples where they've managed to breed out the face markings on the drakes, and we have a standard coloured apple drake here hatched this year that also lacks the face markings, this suggests the face markings on apple drakes may not be the result of (MR) and that another modifier gene is responsible??

Yes, I have read the same from their book & another source I think.

Thanks again Richard, Cheers :)


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PostPosted: Tue May 24, 2011 4:22 pm 
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Gallant Game
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Great info, thanks!!

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PostPosted: Thu Aug 15, 2013 10:17 am 
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Proud Rooster
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Excellent!! I am finally starting to fully get it! I already knew basic genetics so having this all together was fantastic! Cheers mate! But one thing under the pic of the trio of trout it says "Thanks to bitch"? bahahahahhaa sorry I thought it was funny :P


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