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 Post subject: Omphalitis
PostPosted: Sat Nov 16, 2013 12:29 pm 
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Wise Wyandotte
Wise Wyandotte

Joined: Fri Feb 15, 2008 11:58 am
Posts: 4234
Location: Plainland, SEQ
OMPHALITIS

Also known as:

Mushy Chick Disease; Navel ill; Navel Infection (one form of colibacillosis);

Symptoms:
Affected chicks usually appear drowsy or droopy with the down being "puffed up".
They also generally appear to be of inferior quality and show a lack of uniformity.
Many individuals stand near the heat source and are indifferent to feed or water.
Diarrhea sometimes occurs.
Mortality usually begins within 24 hours and peaks by five to seven days.

Treatment:
Broad spectrum antibiotics help reduce mortality and stunting in affected groups, but they do not replace sanitation.
Most people cull affected birds.
Contact the seller and or hatchery if you experience a high death rate from this.

Postmortem Findings:
- Incompletely healed navel
- Fluid under skin
- Bluish Abdomen
- Unabsorbed yolk in abdomen (sometimes, yellowish green and watery or yellowish brown and cheese-like, often bad smelling
- Characteristic lesions are poorly healed navels, subcutaneous edema, bluish color of the abdominal muscles around the navel and unabsorbed yolk material that often has a putrid odor.
- Often yolks are ruptured and peritonitis is common.


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Omphalitis may be defined technically as an inflammation of the navel.

As commonly used, the term refers to improper closure of the navel with subsequent bacterial infection (navel ill, mushy chick disease).

Apparently, most problems result from mixed bacterial infections including the common coliforms and various species belonging to the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Proteus, and others.

Omphalitis can usually be traced to faulty incubation, poor hatchery sanitation or chilling/overheating soon after hatching (such as in transit).

The significance of isolating one of the bacterial species mentioned above is complicated in that many of the same species can be isolated from the yolks of supposedly normal birds immediately after hatching.

Omphalitis occurs during the first few days of life, so it cannot be considered transmissible from bird to bird.

It is transmitted from unsanitary equipment in the hatchery to newly hatched birds having unhealed navels.

Affected chicks usually appear drowsy or droopy with the down being "puffed up". They also generally appear to be of inferior quality and show a lack of uniformity.

Many individuals stand near the heat source and are indifferent to feed or water. Diarrhea sometimes occurs. Mortality usually begins within 24 hours and peaks by five to seven days.

Characteristic lesions are poorly healed navels, subcutaneous edema, bluish color of the abdominal muscles around the navel and unabsorbed yolk material that often has a putrid odor. Often yolks are ruptured and peritonitis is common.

A tentative diagnosis can be made on the basis of history and lesions. The presence of mixed bacterial infections and absence of any specific disease-producing agent is used for confirming the diagnosis.

Good management and sanitation procedures in the hatchery and during the first few days following hatching are the only sure ways to prevent omphalitis. Broad spectrum antibiotics help reduce mortality and stunting in affected groups, but they do not replace sanitation.

Reference:
Poultry Science Home Page
http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/diseases.html#omph
College of Agriculture and Life Science
http://www.cals.msstate.edu
Mississippi State University
http://www.msstate.edu

The Chicken Health Handbook by Gail Damerow


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Omphalitis

is an infection of the yolk sac and usually results after contamination of the egg with faeces or from infection of the umbilicus at hatching. Chicks show severe depression, wings droop and there may be pasting of the vent (opening where the anus is in other animals). It normally occurs within a few days of hatching but could appear later if birds are stressed. Prompt treatment may save affected chicks. More severely affected chicks may never thrive and it may be wiser to humanely destroy them.

Reference: By officers of DPI's Animal and Plant Health service


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AVIAN CLOSTRIDIAL INFECTIONS

Several species of clostridia cause poultry disease.

These include botulism, necrotic enteritis, avian malignant oedema and gangrenous dermatitis, yolk sac infection and omphalitis.

Botulism (Clostridium botulinum) is characterised by paralysis of the neck muscles, causing the bird to rest its head on the ground.

Toxins are absorbed from contaminated feed and possibly from the bacteria multiplying in the gut.

Decomposing broiler carcasses in a broiler house are a source of infection. Clostridium perfringens causes necrotic enteritis.

Damage to the wall of the small intestine may be direct or in association with coccidia.

Penicillin in drinking water is effective treatment.
Avian malignant oedema.
See Gangrenous dermatitis.

source: -http://fowlfacts.proboards.com-


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Bacterial Infections

A number of bacterial infections can lead to damage of the eye.

Salmonella bacteria, particularly Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella arizona , are known to cause severe purulent conjunctivitis and ophthalmitis (inflammation of the eyeball and conjunctiva with pus) and blindness.

Often young birds acquire the infections from the hen or through navel or yolk sac infections.

source: -http://fowlfacts.proboards.com-

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