Backyard Poultry Forum • View topic - Newcastle Disease

Backyard Poultry Forum

Chickens, waterfowl & all poultry - home of exhibition & backyard poultry in Australia & New Zealand
Login with a social network:
It is currently Fri Dec 14, 2018 5:13 pm

All times are UTC + 10 hours [ DST ]




Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 1 post ] 
Author Message
 Post subject: Newcastle Disease
PostPosted: Sat Nov 16, 2013 1:04 pm 
Offline
Wise Wyandotte
Wise Wyandotte

Joined: Fri Feb 15, 2008 11:58 am
Posts: 4234
Location: Plainland, SEQ
NEWCASTLE DISEASE

Also known as:
Avian Distemper; Domestic Newcastle; Endemic Newcastle; Parainfluenza; Pneumoencephalitis; Pseudo Fowl Pest; Mesogenic Newcastle; Mild Newcastle

Symptoms:

In growing birds:
Wheezing, Gasping, Coughing, Chirping
Sometimes eyes swell, and birds tend to scratch them, they may also swell under the eye (sinusitis)
Sometimes followed in 10 to 14 days by a nervous disorder (drooping wing, draggy leg, twisted neck and head, circling)
Depression
Lack of appetite or desire to eat
Complete paralysis
Clonic Spasms
Watery green diarrhea
Swelling of tissues of the head and neck.
Nervous signs seen if bird survives the acute phase.
Affected birds tend to gape and salivate heavily, but without apparent respiratory distress, this may be seen as having a respiratory problem
They usually have fetid (offensive odour) diarrhoea of yellowish white colour, sometimes tinged with blood.
Loss of balance and circling movements of the head
Death due to be trampled by other chickens


In mature birds:
Slight wheezing; temporary cessation of egg production, with soft, rough, or deformed shells
Sometimes nasal discharge
Cloudy eye

Treatment:
Keep birds warm and well fed
Vaccines are available, however may countries insist upon a complete slaughter of birds in affected yards to control any further outbreak.
Newcastle disease is particularly dangerous as it can affect nearly all kinds of birds
Watch for secondary bacterial infections, particularly Air-Sac Disease and Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD)
Surviors are immune, but will be carriers for up to a month


---------------------------------------------


NEWCASTLE DISEASE

Is an extremely virulent disease which causes high mortality in flocks, it is spread primarily on chickens carcasses and chicken meat products, however it can also be carried on clothing, by wild birds and be wind borne.

Paramyxovirus-1, RNA virus, also called “avian pneumoencephalitis”

Differs primarily by pathotype

Potential to cause significant losses in poultry (ducks and geese far less affected).
Young chickens are most susceptible.

Transmission:
Its spread is primarily on chicken carcasses and meat, it can also be carried by clothing, shoes, equipment, wild birds or be blown in by the wind

Inhalation or ingestion. Virus present in exhaled air, respiratory discharges, feces, eggs, and all parts of the carcass. Psittacines can carry this disease therefore we have quarantine procedures for imports.
· Velogenic = highly pathogenic and easily transmitted. Reportable.
· Mesogenic = intermediate pathogenicity
· Lentogenic = low pathogenicity

Symptoms:
Neurotropic – Respiratory and nervous signs (drooping wings, dragging legs, twisting of the head and neck, circling, depression, inappetence, complete paralysis, clonic spasms).

Viscerotropic – Respiratory signs (gasping, coughing, sneezing, rales), watery green diarrhea, swelling of tissues of the head and neck. Nervous signs seen if bird survives the acute phase.

Affected birds tend to gape and salivate heavily, but without apparent respiratory distress, this may be seen as having a respiratory problem
They usually have fetid (offensive odour) diarrhoea of yellowish white colour, sometimes tinged with blood.
Other symptoms are twisted necks, paralysis, loss of balance and circling movements of the head

Necropsy:
Petechiae on the serous membranes, hemorrhage of GI mucosa and serosa, opacity and thickening of the air sacs.

Diagnosis:
Isolation and ID by inhibition with antiserum. Rise in antibodies in paired titers.

Prevention:

High-titered vaccine (live) at early age. Use killed vaccines if another infection is present in the flock.

Treatment:
Vaccines are available, however many countries insist upon a complete slaughter of birds in affected yards to control any further outbreak. Newcastle disease is particularly dangerous as it can affect nearly all kinds of birds

Zoonotic:
Can produce a transitory conjunctivitis in humans.


------------------------------------------------------


NEWCASTLE DISEASE

Newcastle disease is a contagious viral infection causing a respiratory nervous disorder in several species of fowl including chickens and turkeys. Different types or strains of the virus (varying in their ability to cause nervous disorder, visceral lesions and death) have been recognized.

The most severe strain is called viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease (VVND) and is kept from birds in the U.S. by enforcement of strict quarantines at our national borders. It is often referred to as "Exotic Newcastle Disease" and infection of susceptible fowl with this form usually causes high mortality. Due to the reduced chance that poultry in this country will become infected with this disease form, it will not be discussed.

A milder form of the disease is called "mesogenic" Newcastle disease and is the most serious strain found in the U.S. This is the form that is referred to as Newcastle disease in this discussion.

Newcastle disease is highly contagious. All birds in a flock usually become infected within three to four days. The virus can be transmitted by contaminated equipment, shoes, clothing and free-flying birds. During the active respiratory stage, it can be transmitted through the air. The virus is not thought to travel any great distance by this method. Recovered birds are not considered carriers and the virus usually does not live longer than thirty days on the premises.

Signs of Newcastle disease are not greatly different from those of other respiratory diseases. The signs most frequently observed are nasal discharge, excessive mucous in the trachea, cloudy air sacs, casts or plugs in the air passages of the lungs and cloudiness in the cornea of the eye.

The disease in young chickens begins with difficult breathing, gasping and sneezing. This phase continues for ten to fourteen days and may be followed by nervous symptoms. If nervous disorders develop, they may consist of paralysis of one or both wings and legs or a twisting of the head and neck. The head often is drawn over the back or down between the legs. Mortality may vary from none to total loss of the flock.

In adult chickens, respiratory symptoms predominate. Only rarely do nervous disorders develop. If the flock is laying, egg production usually drops rapidly. When this occurs, it takes four weeks or longer for the flock to return to the former production rate. During the outbreak, small, soft-shelled, off-colored and irregular-shaped eggs are produced. Mortality in adult birds is usually low but may be fairly high from some virus strains.

In turkeys, the symptoms are usually mild and may be unnoticed unless nervous disorders develop. During an outbreak, turkeys will produce eggs with a chalky white shell. Reduced production in breeder flocks is the main economic loss from this disease in turkeys.

The flock history, signs of a respiratory nervous disorder and other typical lesions often may be sufficient to allow a tentative diagnosis. Usually, however, the disease cannot be differentiated from infectious bronchitis and some of the other respiratory infections, except by laboratory methods.

Vaccination is practiced widely and is the recommended method for prevention. Several types of vaccines are available but the most successful and widely used is the mild live virus vaccine known as the B1 and La Sota types. The vaccines may be used by drops into the nostril or eye, addition to the drinking water or applied in spray form.

Broiler chickens are usually vaccinated when seven to ten days of age. Chickens kept for egg production are usually vaccinated at least three times. The vaccine is given when birds are approximately seven days, again at about four weeks and a third time at about four months of age. Revaccination while in lay is commonly practiced.

Vaccination is not widely used in turkeys. It is used to protect egg producing breeder flocks. One dose of the mild type vaccine is given after selecting breeder birds.

There is no treatment for Newcastle disease. The disease does not always respect even the best management programs, but good "biosecurity" practices will help reduce the possibility of exposure to Newcastle disease virus.

source: -http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/disviral.htm-


---------------------------------------------------


Respiratory Infections:

A number of respiratory diseases can cause conjunctivitis, including Newcastle disease, laryngotracheitis, infectious bronchitis, chlamydia, and mycoplasma.

These infections do not damage the eye itself, but cause the bird discomfort, leading to rubbing and scratching of the eyelids.


Permanent eye injury with these conditions is rare. However, sinusitis can develop, causing swelling of the sinus under the eyelid and adding to bird discomfort.


source: -http://fowlfacts.proboards.com-

_________________
Image


Top
 Profile  
 
Display posts from previous:  Sort by  
Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 1 post ] 

All times are UTC + 10 hours [ DST ]


Who is online

Users browsing this forum: Google [Bot] and 16 guests


You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot post attachments in this forum

Jump to:  
Powered by phpBB® Forum Software © phpBB Group
©2004-2014 Backyardpoultry.com. Content rights reserved
freestone