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 Post subject: How To Raise Chicks
PostPosted: Sat Aug 19, 2006 10:12 am 
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Champion Bird
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Chicks / How to look after them (Excellent info)


Brooding and raising chicks good information Pt 1
http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au

This is the site I got this information from, but sadly they don’t have it on their site any longer

The period from hatching until the chickens no longer require supplementary heat is called the ‘brooding period’ and usually lasts for 3–6 weeks, depending on seasonal temperatures and the type of housing.

Chickens need supplementary heat when they hatch because they are unable to maintain their body temperatures.

The heat can be supplied by a broody hen or, more usually, by brooders using electricity, gas or oil as fuel.

As the chicken grows, its downy coat is replaced by feathers, and the brooding temperature can be gradually reduced until supplementary heat is discontinued at about 3–4 weeks.

During the brooding period the chickens need warmth, shelter, fresh air, proper food and clean water.

Temperature

The brooder must be capable of providing a temperature of 33°C, even in the coldest conditions. It must be adjustable so that a steady temperature can be maintained.

Simple electric hobby brooders can be obtained from poultry equipment suppliers and will successfully brood up to 50 chicks.

The brooding temperature for day-old chicks should be 33°C at the level of the chickens’ backs, that is, about 50 mm above the litter. As the chickens grow, the temperature can be adjusted as given in Table 1.

To alter the temperature in accordance with Table 1, it should be reduced gradually by 1°C every 2–3 days.

Table 1.
Correct brooding temperatures (at chick height) for chicks of various ages

Age (days) Temperature at chick height (°C)
1 - 33
2 - 33
3 - 33
4 - 32
7 - 30
14 - 26
21 - 22
28 - 20

Generally, supplementary heat can be discontinued at the end of the fourth week, but in winter, it may be necessary to provide heat on very cold nights in the fifth week.

Temperatures are to be used only as a guide because the best way to adjust the temperature for the comfort of the chicks is to observe their behaviour.

If they crowd near the heat source and chirp loudly, the temperature is too low.

If they move well away from the heat source and start panting, they are too hot.

Ideally they should be fairly quiet and spaced evenly under and around the heat source (see figure at right).

A simple and effective means of brooding small numbers of chickens is to use an infra-red heat lamp.

These lamps are designed for higher infra-red energy output and a lower light output than can be provided by ordinary electric light bulbs.

The infra-red energy passes through the air without heating it but when it strikes an absorbing body, such as a chick, the energy is absorbed and transformed into heat.

The litter is also heated and the surrounding air warmed by heat convected from the heated bodies.

A single infra-red lamp will brood up to 50 one-day-old chickens.

The lamp should be suspended 350–400 mm above the litter and the temperature checked by laying a thermometer on the litter directly under the lamp.

The temperature can be adjusted by raising or lowering the lamp. Heat lamps should be hung securely by a chain to minimise the risk of fire.

They must not be hung by the electric lead. Because of the possibility of a lamp failing, a spare globe should be available.

For brooding small batches of chickens (up to 50) a normal incandescent 100 W spotlight globe may be used, but these are not as efficient as the infra-red lamps.

Preparing for the chickens

Clean and disinfect the brooding area some days before the chickens arrive so there is time for the area to dry.

Cover the floor with dry absorbent litter material (wood shavings, rice hulls, chopped straw, sawdust or shredded paper- to a depth of 50 mm.

Place a surround of cardboard, metal sheeting or hardboard around the brooding area.

The surround should be about 450 mm high to protect the chickens from draughts, and the area enclosed should provide at least 50 cm2 of floor space for each bird.

For the first 2 days the litter in the brooding area should be covered with ridged paper towel.

Starter feed and clean fresh water must be provided. Ideally the water should be in specially designed drinkers consisting of a plastic jar inverted into a shallow circular trough.

The drinkers hold about 2 L of water and the shallow troughs are designed so that the chickens cannot drown in them. Ordinary flat dishes can also be used, but if the water is too deep the chickens may drown.

A large stone or block of wood placed in the centre of the pan will usually prevent drowning by reducing the amount of water in the vessel without restricting access by the birds.

DROWING IS A BIG PROBLEM WITH BABY CHICKS… never put drinkers that have any depth to them that the chicks can actually get into… even chilling will kill a young chick very quickly

Switch the brooder on at least 2 hours before the chickens arrive so that the area is warmed and the necessary adjustments to temperature can be made.

Place feeders and drinkers near the heat source and, for the first 2 days, sprinkle food liberally on the ridged paper towel to encourage the chickens to eat.

Also dip each chicken’s beak in the water as it is placed in the brooder to encourage it to drink.

With large numbers it will not be possible to do this with all of the chickens but it is generally worthwhile dipping the beaks of 10% of the flock.

The base pans from hanging feeders can be used as feeders for young chickens; as the chickens grow the tube hoppers can be attached.

The tube will hold enough feed for several days. To reduce feed wastage, the feeders should be gradually raised as the birds grow.

Small flat pans or trays can also be used for feed for the first week.
http://happyhenhouse.proboards43.com

Keep fresh food and water in front of the chickens at all times, and clean and refill the feeders and drinkers regularly.

Cleaning will have to be carried out at least twice daily until the chicks have grown sufficiently and the feeders and drinkers can be raised above the litter.

The ridged paper towel can be removed after 3 days, the feeders and drinkers moved further away from the heat source and the surround gradually expanded until it can be removed completely at 2 weeks.

Make sure that the brooder room is well ventilated but that the chickens are free from draughts.

Cold brooders

The cold brooder is an alternative method of brooding which can be used for small numbers of chickens. It is particularly useful where access to power is limited, is easy to make, and is ideal for chickens that have been ‘started’ under a lamp.

After 2 days the chickens will have started to eat and drink and will then take to the cold brooder readily.

The cold brooder conserves the body heat of the chickens and keeps them warm.

A brooder suitable for up to 50 two-day-old chickens consists of a frame 100 mm deep, 750 mm long and 600 mm wide.

The bottom of the frame is covered with wire mesh and can be set above the litter on adjustable legs.

The bottom of the brooder should be 80 mm above the litter when the chickens are started, and should be raised gradually as they grow.

Strips of hessian or plastic 50 mm wide and 80 mm long can be hung from the bottom edge of the frame to act as curtains. The curtains help to retain the body heat while allowing the chickens to wander in and out.

The mesh on the frame can be covered with hessian and overlaid with a 100 mm layer of rice hulls, wood shavings or straw.

A second layer of hessian placed on top will prevent the chickens from scratching the litter material out of the frame. In this way the brooder is covered with a porous material which will retain the body heat but will allow air to pass through.

The cold brooder can be set up in a surround in a manner similar to the heat lamp. However, for the first 2 days the chickens need to be confined close to the brooder.

The chickens should be introduced to the brooder in the evening and confined under the brooder for the first night. This can be done by placing strips of hardboard over the curtains on three sides and wire mesh over the front curtain.

This will keep the chicks warm while allowing air to pass through the brooder. The wire mesh can be removed after the first night; however, it may be necessary to use the hardboard strips for a few nights during cold weather.

The chickens in a cold brooder need more attention during the first few days, but these brooders are simple to make and are very effective.

Floor space and equipment

Overcrowding and lack of feeder and drinker space can cause some chickens to grow slowly. Suggested space requirements are shown in Table 2. The feeding and drinking space requirements are lengths given in millimetres.

For circular feeders and drinkers, the length available to the chickens can be found by multiplying the diameter of the feeder or drinker by three.

Table 2.
Space requirements of chickens

Age (weeks) Floor space(birds per m2) Feeder space(mm per bird) Drinking space(mm per bird)
1–4 20 / 20 / 10
5–8 10 / 30 / 20
9–20 5 / 50 / 30

Feeding

Chickens that are to be grown for egg production need chicken starter crumbles or mash from 1 day old to about 6 weeks.

The diet should contain 18–20% crude protein and a coccidiostat (to prevent the disease coccidiosis) if the chickens are to be reared on the floor.

For small flocks from the age of 6 until 16 weeks, growers’ pellets or crumbles (15–16% protein) are generally used. Birds should have unrestricted access to food and water.

At 16 weeks the pullets should be fed a laying diet, which should be available at all times.

It can be supplemented with scratch grain and kitchen scraps.

From 1 day old until it is 16 weeks old, a pullet will eat about 1.5 kg of starter diet and 5.5 kg of grower diet.

During the laying period each hen will eat up to 1 kg of feed a week.

The brooding and feeding systems described above are generally suitable for small numbers of chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese.

Diets containing anti-coccidial compounds are recommended only for chickens and should not be routinely fed to laying hens.

Commercial poultry farms use diets that have been formulated for particular breeds or strains of poultry.

These diets are available for small flocks but generally have to be specially ordered from local feed suppliers.



Document details
Created/Updated: 22 April 2001
Series: Agfact A5.1.6 Edition: third edition
Authors: Gerry Bolla, Livestock Officer (Poultry)
Also by these authors
Feedback
We welcome your comments/suggestions/feedback on this item
The information contained in this web page is based on knowledge and understanding at the time of writing - 22 April 2001 . However, because of advances in knowledge, users are reminded of the need to ensure that information upon which they rely is up to date and to check currency of the information with the appropriate officer of New South Wales Department of Primary Industries or the user’s independent adviser.

http://happyhenhouse.proboards43.com

Care of Baby Poultry


FEED:
Use a chick starter for the first 8 wks. Sprinkle feed on a piece of cardboard in the area where the chicks will be.

The chicks will find the feed more easily this way at the start. Do this for a few days. Then put the feed in troughs low enough so the chicks can see and reach the feed easily.

Use a 2 foot feeder for each 50 chicks. Never let the chicks run out of feed. Adding chopped boiled egg yolk on top of the feed gets the chicks off to a good start and encourages them to start eating feed right away.

Chicks should stay on a full feed ration of chick starter/grower until they are 4 1/2 - 5 months of age.

WATER:
Have a 1 gallon chick waterer for each 50 chicks. Do not medicate first water. For the first 2 days add 3 tablespoons of table sugar to each quart of lukewarm water for extra energy. Use plain water after that. DIP

THE BEAK OF EACH CHICK IN THE WATER BEFORE YOU TURN IT LOOSE. Your chicks will be thirsty when you get them. A taste of water right away helps them to find more water soon.

Most baby chick loss is caused because the chick doesn't start to eat or drink. Never let your chicks run out of water.

HEAT:
We have found that using a drop light with reflector shield is a great source of heat. Use a 75 - 100 watt bulb and use as many lights as you need to keep the birds comfortable.

Hang the light no closer than 18"-24" from the floor. If too warm raise light higher. The temperature should be 90-95 degrees for the first week. The temperature may need to be slightly higher for Bantams and other small bodied birds.

A thermometer will help a lot to ensure that you have the proper comfort for the birds. Reduce the temperature 5 degrees per week until you reach 70 degrees. they shouldn't need much heat after that. Start with 1 bulb per 50 chicks in cold weather. Then watch how the birds act - see diagram.

The birds need a small light at night to keep them from piling up even when they don't need it for warmth. Be sure to watch the CORNISH CROSS as they grow faster than other birds and will overheat more quickly.

SPACE: Try to provide 1/2 square foot per chick at the start. For starting 50 chicks use a draft shield (see above) and make a circle about 5 to 6 foot across. For 100 chicks make a circle 7 to 8 feet across.

THE DUCKS AND GEESE SHOULD BE RAISED SEPARATE FROM THE CHICKS AND TURKEYS

Other Important Matters:
DRAFT SHIELD: Cardboard put in a circle about 12 inches high around the chicks helps cut down drafts on the floor. Be sure the circle is large enough to allow the chick to get away from the heat if it wants to.

LITTER:
Sawdust, shavings or rice hulls make a good litter. Straw or hay will also work but not as good as the others. Put the litter all over the floor at least 1 to 2 inches thick. On concrete floors use 3" - 5" of bedding.

PICKING:
Baby chicks will often pick each other if they are too hot, too crowded, with fresh air, or short of room. Occasionally bright light also causes them to pick. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure when it comes to picking. Sometimes, however, they pick for no apparent reason. To stop it try putting in fresh green grass clippings several times a day and darken the room. Chunks of grass sod can also be set around for the chicks to pick at. For chicks that have been picked, smear pine tar or menthol based ointment on the area injured and keep up the treatment until healed.

AFTER FOUR WEEKS
1. Increase floor area to 3/4 square foot per chick.
2. Increase feeders to provide 2 1/2 to 3" of space per chick.
3. Increase waterers' to one 5 gallon fount for per 100 chicks.
4. Install roosts at back of brooder area. Allow four inches per bird with roost poles six inches apart.
5. Open windows in day time. Leave only partly open at night.
6. Prevent water puddles around founts. Place founts on low wire platform.
7. Chicks can range outside on warm sunny days, but only if clean range is available.
.
SPECIAL SITUATIONS AFTER THE CHICKS ARRIVE.

IF THE CHICKS HAD A HARD TRIP. Instead of using the standard feed and water suggestions listed, try this: Put 5 tablespoons of sugar in each quart of water. then mix some of this extra sweet water with some of your feed to make a soupy mix. Give your chicks this special feed and water mix for 3 to 4 days to get them over the effects of shipping.

REAR END "PASTING UP". Sometimes the stress of shipping causes the manure to stick to the back of the chick. It is important to remove this daily. Pull off gently or, better yet, wash off with a cloth and warm water. it will disappear in a few days as the chick starts to grow. If chicks appear droopy add a sulfa type drug to their drinking water as directed on package.

BABY TURKEYS


Use the basic instructions as for chicks, but watch more carefully as turkeys tend to chill quicker than chicks. Baby turkeys are known to be somewhat dumb...therefore you have to make sure they know where the feed is. It's helpful sometimes to put colored marbles in the water fountains and to sprinkle some feed on cardboard the first few days. If they do not get started eating and drinking properly you might have "starve outs". If the turkeys show any sign of diarrhea add a sulfa type (Sulmet, etc) drug to their drinking water as direction on package.

DUCKS AND GOSLINGS


Follow the same care as for baby chicks except ducks and goslings do not need the extra heat as long as baby chicks because of their size and rapid growth rate. They will require more care in that they are messier with water fountains. They can be turned outside at an earlier age depending on the weather. Goslings love to eat grass and weeds and will begin grazing as soon as they are turned out. Do not let baby ducks and goslings on a pond as they will drown, since they don't have a mother to get them off the pond. Their down absorbs water but once they have feathered out they can go on the pond. DO NOT MEDICATE WATER FOR DUCKS AND GEESE!!

QUAIL AND PHEASANTS


Use the basic instructions for chicks, however, watch them more carefully for piling up. The temperature may need to be slightly higher for the smaller bodied birds. It must be regulated closely. Special water founts can be purchased or if using regulated chick founts add clean gravel or marbles to take up space so they can't get in the water and drown or get chilled. It is recommended you use a colored bulb to help control cannibalism.

SAFE HANDLING OF POULTRY
Live poultry can be a source of potentially harmful microorganisms; therefore, precautions must be taken when handling & caring for them to prevent fecal/oral transmission among people. Children should be supervised as they handle poultry to make sure they don't put their hands or fingers in their mouth. Always wash your hands with soap and water after handling poultry.

http://happyhenhouse.proboards43.com


Feed and water how much is needed per chick

Feeders –<br> Chicks should be given 5 (Leghorns) -8 (broilers) cm of feeding space.
Feed is usually put in shallow boxes or egg flats on the floor or cage bottom for 4 to 6 days as well.

(c) Waterers –
Good water is important.
In large flocks, some form of automatic water system is usually installed.
In a float controlled trough, 2 cm per bird is considered sufficient.
One hanging fountain per 80 to 100 birds, one smaller cup per 50 birds, one nipple for 10-12 birds, will generally be adequate.

For small groups, three 4L or larger drinkers should be provided per 100 chicks, and more added as required.
These should be cleaned and refilled daily.
Feed and water should be within 1.5m of all chicks.
Water should be clean and free from toxins and chemicals.
Salt as NaCl or NaS04 is particularly dangerous in young chicks up to 21 days.
Total sodium (Na+ ) in water should not be above 300 ppm for broilers and 600 ppm for Leghorns or local strains.


FEEDING
For best results, a commercial ration is recommended.
If home grain or other feed is available, it may be fed starting at day 8 in broilers and day 15 in Leghorns.
Replace 5% of commercial ration with whole grain or other feeds and increase by 5% a week in broilers (5% every 14 days in Leghorns) to a maximum of 50%, or a commercial concentrate may be diluted with whole or ground grain or alternate feed stuffs.
When grain is fed, supply insoluble grit sprinkled on the feed at least once per week.

Don't overfeed grit.

Chickens raised for meat should be given all the feed they will eat (unless they are being raised at high altitude).
Layers may have to be restricted to prevent them becoming too fat.
Breeding flock must be monitored regularly and weighed weekly to make sure they are uniform and not overweight.
Severe restriction may be required in broiler breeders.
It is advisable to include an anticoccidial drug in the feed of birds grown on the floor.
This should be fed continuously throughout the growing period up to market in broilers and to 12 weeks in breeders or Leghorns.
Coccidia vaccines are also available.

http://happyhenhouse.proboards 43.com

How much floor space do my chicks need

Floor space –
Allow 1m2 per 75-150 chicks under the heat source and at least 1m2 per 25-50 chicks within the chick guard.

Many producers use a chick guard of corrugated cardboard 30 cm in height placed 2-3 m back from the heat source for the first 5 to 7 days.

The guard should be removed when the birds can fly over it.

Broilers at 6 weeks require 1m2 per 9 to 12 birds.

Leghorn chicks for egg production are often started in large (1 x 2m) or smaller growing cages with warm room brooding, or in hot climates with a heat source over each cage.

Small growing cages may be about 50 x 50 cm with 24 chicks started in each.

After 4 to 5 weeks, half the chicks are placed in another cage of equivalent size, to double the space per bird and split again to 6 per cage at 8 to 10 weeks (400 cm2 per bird).

http://happyhenhouse.proboards43.com

Good info from Sandy from Happy Hen House

Cheers
Looloo :)


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PostPosted: Sun Aug 20, 2006 4:19 pm 
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Old Mother Goose
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Thanks looloo.
An excellent resource.
Lucy

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PostPosted: Thu Jan 25, 2007 10:14 am 
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Please pardon my ignorance, as i know absolutely nothing about this side of chicken care.

Question:

Chickens have not always been raised under heat lamps/incubators etc. Or at least, that is my impression.

So, all that info - the heat source, the brooder, and such requirements - is that for instead of just letting the hen do her thing?

This is not to say that it is not good information, quite the contrary, its fantastic and i was very interested to read it all, a great reference...

But why not have a hen just raise her chicks? It can still be done, right?

I would understand needing to give them correct feed and water, and making sure they were safe and the area for mum and bubs was appropriate (clean, dry, warm).
Is the info above just for large scale breeding perhaps?

Sorry just very confused...


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 Post subject: re raising chicks
PostPosted: Fri Jun 08, 2007 12:23 pm 
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i read all the info that you posted i have a bantam sitting on 3 eggs at the moment not sure if they any going to hatch but i have been told to dip there beaks in water to make them drink but i thought the hen will show the chicks how to do all that plus she is extremely protective of her eggs so i prosume she will be even more protective of chicks so i thought the best thing would be to let her sort them out is this right to do?


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PostPosted: Fri Jun 08, 2007 1:27 pm 
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Old Mother Goose
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hi,breed all my chicks under broodies,let them take care of chicks,yes she will probably be protective--I move my hens and chicks from the nest 2 days after they hatch if she hasn't left already----feed them the crumbles---make sure they have a shallow water dish,so as not to drown and not big enough for them to stand in-----I do lock mine in small pens just the hen and chicks----have a problem with predation of chicks here----sometimes I have had stupid hens that leave the nest when bubs are not dry,not out of shell,or not strong enough to keep up,like all animals some are better mums than others----let her do her thing just keep an eye on them,good luck,pam

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 Post subject: re raising chicks
PostPosted: Fri Jun 08, 2007 9:53 pm 
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i have allready sectioned her off from the other 2 hens as i have a part time broody hen kept stealing her eggs and sitting on them for five minutes then couldnt be bothered she wasnt bothered that the other hen was trying to peck her eyes out for stealing them i was going to leave them seperate for about a week with the other 2 hens been able to see through but not get near them is that long enough?
i dont know if im going to have any yet she could only cover 3 of the 6 eggs as she is a bantam plus any white ones will be roosters which will be collected of who i got the eggs from so i have bought the crumbs and keeping my fingers crossed
i got 2 small really shallow plant pot saucers for the food and water and i was going to put some pebbles in the middle of the saucer so they couldnt fall in it is this ok?


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 Post subject: re raisiing chicks
PostPosted: Sun Jun 10, 2007 4:16 am 
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if i get any chicks hatch out if any of the hens food falls on the floor will the chicks try to eat it even though they have crumbs available and if so will it harm them
i will put the hens food up higher but they are messy arnt they some of the hens food will end up on the floor


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PostPosted: Sun Jun 10, 2007 6:36 pm 
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joanne,
the hen will eat the chick starter.
you will have noticed she has not been eating very much while she has been sitting on the eggs. the extra protein content in the chick food will help build up her strength again so she can look after them well and put back on condition.
this will do her no harm, it will do her good.
by the time she is ready to lay eggs again, she will be back on normal food, and it will be safe to eat the eggs.

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 Post subject: re raising chicks
PostPosted: Sun Jun 10, 2007 7:38 pm 
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thanks i will just leave chick food in there then better get some more then


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PostPosted: Sun Dec 21, 2008 11:10 am 
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Thanks for this resource! Has helped a lot in preparing me for the chicks arrival!


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so at what age do you remove the hen and put her back in with the other chooks, leaving the chicks in the seperate pen?

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PostPosted: Tue Dec 23, 2008 1:36 pm 
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The hen decides that for you.


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PostPosted: Tue Dec 30, 2008 9:12 am 
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caladenia wrote:
joanne,
the hen will eat the chick starter.
you will have noticed she has not been eating very much while she has been sitting on the eggs. the extra protein content in the chick food will help build up her strength again so she can look after them well and put back on condition.
this will do her no harm, it will do her good.
by the time she is ready to lay eggs again, she will be back on normal food, and it will be safe to eat the eggs.

sometimes the layers, will eat a little of the grower formula, is this bad for the eggs?
should they still be eatable?

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PostPosted: Wed Sep 30, 2009 9:29 am 
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Sammiiz wrote:
Please pardon my ignorance, as i know absolutely nothing about this side of chicken care.

Question:

Chickens have not always been raised under heat lamps/incubators etc. Or at least, that is my impression.

So, all that info - the heat source, the brooder, and such requirements - is that for instead of just letting the hen do her thing?

This is not to say that it is not good information, quite the contrary, its fantastic and i was very interested to read it all, a great reference...

But why not have a hen just raise her chicks? It can still be done, right?

I would understand needing to give them correct feed and water, and making sure they were safe and the area for mum and bubs was appropriate (clean, dry, warm).
Is the info above just for large scale breeding perhaps?

Sorry just very confused...



Hi,

I have been reading through info provided in the "Incubation & rearing" section and I too am still a little unclear on the appropriate methods of allowing the Mum to care for chicks naturally.
Of course I want whats best for my girls and the chicks, but I just want to clarify how much intervention is necessary.

I have 3 x Pekin Bantams in our hutch - one of these is broody sitting on fertisiled eggs ready to hatch.

What would be the best process once the eggs start hatch (fingers-crossed)?

1. Do I remove her and the chicks before eggs hatch and place in separate pen?
2. Do I leave her be until chicks have hatched?
3. Should I remove her and her babies at all?
4. Can she keep them warm naturally without heat source?
5. At what point do I remove mum from the chicks or do I do this at all? Will the mum fret?
6. If mum is to be removed what kind of light/heat lamp can I use for chicks?

Sorry for all the questions.
Thanks in advance.
Regards, Dale.


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 Post subject: Re: How To Raise Chicks
PostPosted: Wed Sep 30, 2009 10:00 am 
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1. Do I remove her and the chicks before eggs hatch and place in separate pen?

This is always the best way because unbroody chooks can and will attack another hens chicks sometimes killing them.

2. Do I leave her be until chicks have hatched?

How far along are the eggs...when did she start incubating them. In theory, it would have been better to move her, then let her settle, then put eggs under her.

3. Should I remove her and her babies at all?

It can go both ways, it will all depend on the other girls, you may lose some chicks, all the chicks or none of the chicks.

4. Can she keep them warm naturally without heat source?

Absolutely, she and her kind have been doing it for hundreds of thousands of years, we only got involved about 3000 years ago.

5. At what point do I remove mum from the chicks or do I do this at all? Will the mum fret?

She will let you know, generally at about 6-8 weeks, she will have less to do with them, start pecking them when she gets fed up with them climbing all over her and most of all, she will come back into lay ie, she is ready to go through the cycle again because her last lot of chicks are ready to go it alone.

6. If mum is to be removed what kind of light/heat lamp can I use for chicks?

I prefer getting a brooder ceramic globe. Most poultry supply places sell them.


J

_________________
Some mornings I wake up grumpy but most mornings I let her sleep in.
Just Marans


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