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 Post subject: Feeding
PostPosted: Mon Aug 20, 2007 12:45 am 
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Golden Swan
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Feeding Chooks

0 to 8 week chicks - Chick crumbs
In a 1998 study it was found that delaying balanced nutrition in hatchling poultry for even 24 hours can retard growth and development of the gastrointestinal and immune systems and impact growth long after this.
8 to 18 weeks - Grower Pellets
18 weeks on - Layer Pellets or equivalent

Nutrients Chooks Need
ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS
The following six classes of nutrients are essential to life, growth, production and reproduction in all classes of poultry. Nature supplies most of these essentials in the form of pasture, bugs and insects, gravel, grains and seeds, sunshine, etc. Indoor feeding of young or adult poultry, places full responsibility on the attendant to supply these same requirements in some form or another and in adequate but not excessive amounts.

WATER: Birds can live longer without food than without water. Lack of a consistant supply of fresh water hinders the growth of young poultry; it leads to low egg production and early moulting in the laying flock.
PROTEIN: This is usually the most expensive feed material, but the one most likely to bring profitable results if properly used. Protein from animal sources - milk, liver, fish scraps, meat or meat meal - is more effective in promoting growth and egg production, than protein from most vegetable sources. Grains alone are entirely inadequate in amount and kind of protein. Excess protein has a forcing effect which may be detrimental to poultry of any age.
CARBOHYDRATES: These are the starchy materials in grains and grain products. Only a starved flock will lack for carbohydrates. They supply fuel and energy, the excess going to form fat in the body or egg.
FATS: Some fat is present in practically all feed materials. An excess of fat from fish oil or meat and fish products may cause digestive upset in birds, and lead to such disorders as fatty degeneration and "crazy chick disease".
MINERALS: Calcium carbonate (from limestone or gravel, clam or oyster shells, bone, etc) in the presence of Vitamin D, forms most of the egg shell. Calcium and phosphorous make up the major part of bone; but excess phosphorous (from bone materials) may immobilize the manganese in the diet, leading to crooked bones and slipped tendons in chicks and poults. Salt supplies some essential minerals. Green feed contains small amounts of certain highly important minerals.
VITAMINS: The naturally speedy growth of young poultry soon reveals any vitamin deficiencies in their rations; hatching of eggs is a critical test of the vitamin content of a breeder diet. Most commonly lacking in Manitoba diets are:
(1) Vitamin A (from green feed, yellow corn and fish oils). Vitamin A protects against colds and infections.
(2) Vitamin D (in marine fish oils and synthetic products, or formed in body when exposed to ultra-violet rays of sun). Vitamin D aids in laying down of mineral in shell or bone, and in preventing leg weakness and rickets.
(3) Riboflavin (in milk, liver, yeast, green feed, synthetic riboflavin, etc.). Riboflavin promotes the growth of chicks and poults, both in the egg and after hatching; hence it is one of the most important factors in hatchability. Riboflavin prevents nutritional or curled-toe paralysis in young chicks.
This article summarises the association of particular vitamins with certain problems which may be observed in poultry.
http://www.poultry-health.com/library/solvits.htm


FEEDS
Wheat usually is one of the best grains for poultry feeding, although a proportion of course grains in some form should always be included in the ration, along with wheat. In seasons of rust or frost, when wheat is shrunken, more should be ground and fed in mashes and less in the scratch feed. Either hard spring or Durum wheat may be used.

Oats vary considerably in feeding value, due to difference in hull. They can be fed whole as part of a scratch feed, or in mashes in the crushed, rolled, or finely ground form. If light, sift out the hulls; poor quality oats frequently have so much hull as to be of little use for poultry feed.

Barley will work well as part of the scratch feed and in mashes in crushed, rolled, or finely ground form. Ordinarily it is not quite as palatable as wheat or oats; still in seasons when these two grains are of poor quality and the barley is fair or good, more can fed in the different forms, or even as boiled or soaked barley, with very good results.

Corn is a very desirable grain fed whole, cracked or ground. Ripe corn on the cob may be fed to hens and turkeys. Shelled corn may be used with other grains as scratch feed. Corn chop could be included in any of the dry mash rations listed in this circular. The corn, if not thoroughly dried, should be mixed with the other chop in the mash immediately after grinding.

Millet (proso or hog millet), where grown, may be used to good advantage in growing, laying, and fattening rations. Millet may compromise up to one-third of the whole grain fed, and up to one-third of the chop mixture in dry mashes.

Rye is not as palatable as wheat, oats or barley, but can be fed in limited quantities as a scratch feed or in mashes along with two or more of the other grains. In large quantities it is likely to cause digestive disorders.

Flax is high in protein and fat. A small amount may be fed in the whole or ground form in mashes during the moulting season and fall and winter months. Linseed oil cake meal may also be used.

By-products of grain (such as wheat middlings, shorts, bran, barley meal, oat flour, oat middlings, and oat feed) have a place in poultry feeding, especially where feed must be bought. They may be higher in price than the whole grain, and if used should be fed for a specific purpose, such bran, shorts or middlings in growing and laying rations, and oat flour, oat middlings, oat feed, or barley meal in fattening rations.

Skim milk and Buttermilk are Excellent for all Classes of Poultry but especially valuable for young chicks, laying hens and fattening birds. Milk supplies the vitamin riboflavin which is indispensible to high hatching quality in eggs. As a desirable protein supplement, milk undoubtedly heads the list.

"Concentrates" and "Balancers" are especially prepared supplements put up by feed companies. They should be added to home-grown chopped grains in proportions recommended by the manufacturers.

Fish Oils (cod liver oil, pilchard oil, etc.) are used in chick rations, in winter laying rations and in rations for producing eggs for hatching, as a source of Vitamins A and D when the supply of green pasture and direct sunshine is limited or lacking. Standard fish oils for poultry should contain 1,250 units or more of Vitamin A, and 200 A.O.A.C. units or more of Vitamin D, per gram. If fed in dry mash the oil should be mixed first with a small quantity of ground wheat.

This wonderful information is taken from MANITOBA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND IMMIGRATION WINNIPEG, MANITOBA paper: POULTRY RATIONS and Feeding Methods.

Other useful links:
This one included the answers to frequently asked questions such as 'Why does my hen lays soft shelled eggs?' etc
http://msucares.com/poultry/feeds/index.html
This one looks in detail at the digestive process in poultry, and thus the benefits and difficulties of certain feeds
http://www.shagbarkbantams.com/page20.htm

Quantity to Feed - Commercial Pellet based feed
Please note: the amounts given are guidelines only. Tha actual amount eaten will depend on size, breed and whether the chicks/chooks are under lights. It is 'usual' practice to feed pellet type feeds ad lib.
Chicks (Chick Crumbles) - varies from approximately 12 grams per day at hatch to 40 grams per day at 6 weeks.
Growers (Pullet Grower) - 40 grams per day at 6 weeks to 85 grams per day at 18 weeks.
Adult Hens - Quantity of Pellets in relation to number of eggs laid
no eggs: 83-95g per day (around 1/4 cup)
30% production: 95-108g per day
90% production: 120-131g per day (scant 1/2 cup)
Generally if you provide an unlimited supply of pellets the chooks won't over eat, although they sometimes do with grain based feeds (by picking out the 'good' bits)

viewtopic.php?t=5708
viewtopic.php?t=4200
viewtopic.php?t=6216
viewtopic.php?t=4021

Information on Food Value of different Mixes
viewtopic.php?t=153

Keep in mind that Commercial Mixes lose some of their food value as they age
viewtopic.php?t=5938

What are the different commercial feeds?
Pellets - balanced diet containing all the nutrients a laying hen needs, including calcium.
Mash - as for pellets but not pelletised
Feed Mixes, Scratch mixes - balanced diet consisting of a mix of grains, and mash or pellets. May also include oyster shell for calcium.
Other food options include vegetable scraps, meat or fish meal, meal worms, grains and seeds, free ranging, and your own feed mixes. If mixing your own food makes sure all the dietry requirements of your chooks are met.

Fresh food is impportant. Under hot and humid conditions, feed without antioxidants is subject to oxidative rancidity, which can lead to symptoms of vitamin deficiency.
http://www.wattnet.com/Archives/Docs/03 ... N=74030876

Organic Alternatives to Pellets and Feeding Chooks Naturally
viewtopic.php?t=1155
viewtopic.php?t=4452

Some Home Made Mash Recipes viewtopic.php?t=2950
Wet Mash viewtopic.php?t=946

Forgot to buy Chick Crumble? This will get you out of a fix!
1. Finely grated carrot and /or rolled oats - quick cooking stuff or break up bigger oats and/or milled/cracked grain, weetbix, wheatgerm - raid your pantry as stopgap.
2. Boiled eggs mashed up work miuxed with bread crumbs or on it's own.
from viewtopic.php?t=5992
Chicks can also be fed grains form a young age. However if feeding them grain remember that they also need very fine grit too.
viewtopic.php?t=4002

Feeding Scraps
Feeding scraps can be a great way of recycling scraps and of cutting your feed bill. Kitchen schen scraps should not replace pellets or grain mixes but can be a useful adjunct. Some scraps can be poisonous in small amounts or toxisity can build up over time, so avoid raw potatoe peelings, especially any green ones. Avacado is also toxic. Generally chooks won't eat things that aren't good for them but if they are hungry they maydo so take care.
Link to thread: viewtopic.php?t=5614

Free Ranging for Food
This is a great way of providing a varied died and really helps cut the food bill. Remember to also provide a pelletised/grain based food as well (although they will eat much less of it).
Plants Toxic to Chooks viewto ... =poisonous
Plants Safe for Chooks viewto ... =poisonous

Protein Sources
Meat meal: http://forum.backyardpoultry.com/viewtopic.php?t=6123
http://forum.backyardpoultry.com/viewtopic.php?t=6254
Growing meal worms: http://forum.backyardpoultry.com/viewtopic.php?t=3802

Special Feeding Regimes
Fattening Chooks for Eating http://forum.backyardpoultry.com/viewtopic.php?t=1568
Feeding for Showing
viewtopic.php?t=1273

Special Diet to Assist Ex Battery Hens Adjust to 'Normal' Food
For 5 birds:
2 tablespoons of Meat meal (protein supplement)
2 tablespoons of Bran
4 tablespoons of Pollard
6-8 tablespoons of layer crumbles or pellets (use hot water to break them down into a mash) (carbs)
Full cream milk to mix into a crumble texture
Pinch of some vitamins and minerals in the mix
1 dessertspoon of some grit mixed in with the mix (oyster shell or 1/2 teaspoon of calcium powder)
2 teaspoons of cod liver oil
Mix with water or the milk to form a crumbly texture, put into a deepish dish so they can peck at it (debeaked birds), make up twice a day

In hot weather remove it after 12 hours if not eaten and replace it.
Link: viewto ... elled+eggs

Rickets Diet
This is an excellent diet for off colour or ill birds.
2 to 4 tablespoons of rolled oats or Rice Baby Cereal (easily digested)
2 tablespoons of yoghurt, NOT THE ONE WITH FRUIT OR SUGAR IN IT, very important.. find the one with the active bacillus
2 tablespoons of GRATED not chopped, apple and carrot
1 small teaspoon of honey
1 boiled egg yolk.. not the white.. only the yolk

If you have multi vitamin powder.. put a few grains into the mix... not grams .. grains.. this is about 5 to 8 grains.. a little goes a long way.
Make this into a crumbly mixture..not wet and soggy.. the bird must still be able to eat it by picking it up in her beak

Feed for 3 days up to 3 weeks.. depending on the birds progress. Most birds take around 7 to 9 days on this diet to get back to normal.
Link: viewto ... elery+seed

Grit and Shell Grit
Chooks need both hard grit and shell grit.
Shell grit (crushed oyster shell)is a source of calcium and is usually fed in a separate container. The chooks will help themselves when they need it. You can also use crushed up eggshells as the calcium suppliment instead of oyster shell. Take care not to give young chicks too much calcium - they only need supplimentary calcium when they start to lay. Cuttle fish can also be used as a calcium suppliment: viewtopic.php?t=2875
Hard Grit is necessary for chooks eating grain and helps develop a heathy digestive system. As hens don't have teeth, the grit assists in grinding up whole grain. You should start chick on grit as soon as you start giving them grain, but they will need a finer grit than adult hens. I usually start them by sprinkling some coarse sand onto their chick crumb.
When to start with grit: http://forum.backyardpoultry.com/viewtopic.php?t=5950
Calcium suppliment for layers: http://forum.backyardpoultry.com/viewtopic.php?t=3636
Egg shells for calcium: http://forum.backyardpoultry.com/viewtopic.php?t=4382

Waterers and Feeders
There are many types of waterers and feeders out there. One of the most important points to help prevent disease it to keep them clean. Here are some links:
Do it yourself waterer: viewtopic.php?t=1076
Cool water in hot weather: viewtopic.php?t=879
Rodent proof feeder: viewtopic.php?t=670
Feeders and waterers to last several days: http://forum.backyardpoultry.com/viewtopic.php?t=5361

Electrolytes
When a bird is dehydrated due to illness, the provision of electrlytes in the drinking water can assist in the recovery.
Commercial Powdered Electrolytes: Treatment 24 hours or as needed
For stress and transportation stress, heat stress, 1 teaspoon to 4 litres of water.
Home Made Electrolytes (this formula gives needed electrolytes & some sugar for energy)
1 cup water
* 2 tsp sugar
* 1/8 tsp salt
* 1/8 tsp baking soda
Combine all ingredients and warm slightly.
Mix 1 teaspoon in one litre of water.
Link: viewto ... elery+seed

Dietry suppliments
Dietry suppliments are additives to the diet to improve health and/or wellbeing of your chooks.

Soluvet A commercial product used as a dietary suppliment. Available at Stock Feed Stores or Vetafarm.
Link: viewtopic.php?t=1330

Apple Cider vinegar (ACV)
Available for Stock Feed Stores (don't use the more refined version from the Supermarket). Given at the rate of 10-20ml per Litre of Drinking water, two or three weeks out of four. Assists in acidifying the birds digestive system, making it less attractive to paracites and bacteria. Used as a preventative rather than a cure.

Cod Liver Oil - A good source of Vitamin D (assists in the absorbtion of Calcium). If a chook is lacking in Vitamin D the eggshell quality may suffer. Vitamin D is manufactured in the body from sunlight, but if there is little direct sunlight a chook may suffer from a deficiency. Try 1 tablespoon of oil mixed with commercial pellets (enough for 1 bird for 2 weeks) and see if the shell quality improves. Don't exceed this dose as too much is bad for them.
viewto ... elled+eggs
viewto ... elled+eggs
viewto ... elled+eggs

Probiotics
Probiotics can help resore the gut flora following a course of antibiotics. there are commercial products available, or you can mix up your own.
Link to Probiotics and gut Flora Restoring Formuale
viewto ... elery+seed

I would like to give a special thankyou to dlhunicorn for her valuable contribution to this sticky. I have incorporated some of this information in the main body of this sticky, and her post below contains more.

NellyG

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Last edited by NellyG on Sat Nov 08, 2008 7:04 pm, edited 37 times in total.

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PostPosted: Thu Oct 11, 2007 7:15 pm 
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Proud Rooster
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thanks for all the work you have put into these pages for us newbies to read... believe me I need them .. cheers lisa :lol:


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PostPosted: Tue Nov 06, 2007 1:30 am 
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Showy Hen
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here ya go Nelly!
http://www.novusint.com/Public/Library/ ... .asp?ID=72
The Nutritional Requirements of Hatchling Poultry

http://pubs.caes.uga.edu/caespubs/pubcd/L396.htm
Nutrition For The Backyard Flock

http://msucares.com/poultry/feeds/index.html
If poultry are expected to remain healthy and productive, they must consume adequate amounts of all the necessary nutrients. The quantity of each required nutrient varies depending on many variables like species of bird, age, productive state, environmental conditions and disease status. Fortunately, many nutritional deficiency problems can be identified by the unique symptom each exhibits.
Discussions in the answers and publications that follow will help increase the poultry caretaker's understanding of the birds' dietary needs and improve the nutritional health of the flock.

http://library.wur.nl/wda/dissertations/dis4128.pdf
The gastro-intestinal tract
The overall function of the gastrointestinal tract (GI-tract) is to process ingested feed into molecular forms that can be transferred from the external environment to the body’s internal environment, along with salts and water. In addition the GI-tract has an important function to protect the body against pathogens, thus there is an overall balance between feed absorption and protection against foreign antigens.................
Besides the functions in digestion and absorption, the GI-tract is also a major
barrier between external and internal environments. Therefore crucial immunological defence systems are active in the intestine. All intestinal cells involved in immunological defences in the GI-tract are together known as gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). The GALT is one of the major immunological systems of the body.........................
..............
The GI-tract is colonized by a commensal microflora. The composition of the
commensal microflora can be influenced by probiotics, dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria like lactic acid bacteria. Also prebiotics can influence the composition of the commensal microflora. Prebiotics are most often carbohydrates like oligosaccharides, which are non-digestible food ingredients that improve host health by selectively stimulating the growth or activity of a limited number of beneficial bacteria
in the intestine. The gastrointestinal epithelium can tolerate a significant degree of bacterial colonization...................
Chicken intestinal diseases
The GI-tract is a portal of entry for many pathogens. Infections of the GI-tract
commonly occur in chickens of all age groups, but tend to predominate in young birds as the GI-tract is not yet fully developed in young chickens (64). There are many pathogens that replicate in the intestine of poultry, like Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter jejuni, Eimeria spp. or rotavirus. Malabsorption syndrome is also an important intestinal disorder in chickens, but the exact infectious agents are not known.
Different enteric bacterial pathogens may have different effects on the intestinal epithelium: alterations in the structure and function of the tight junction barrier, induction of fluid and electrolyte secretion, and activation or inhibition of the inflammatory cascade.....................
........To prevent intestinal diseases in poultry, it is important to understand the host responses to intestinal pathogens and to understand the avian intestinal immune system, but the exact host response after interaction with a pathogen
are not all known yet. Infections of the GI-tract are known to negatively impact poultry production and negatively influence the well-being of the chickens. Also, infections of the gastrointestinal tract likely contribute to the development of other diseases. For instance pathogen induced mucosal damage may provide a portal of entry for other potential pathogens. Also diseases due to nutritional deficiencies can occur as a result of a gastrointestinal infection when feed absorption is affected (64)...........
For the development of prevention and control strategies, most attention has been given to the pathogen so far and only limited attention has been given to the resistance of the host itself. Since only a few effective vaccines for the control of enteric diseases are available, the poultry industry has adopted widespread use of antibiotics to control disease and to maintain bird health..............
Another way for disease prevention, besides the use of antibiotics, is modulation of intestinal defence by feed ingredients or the use of pro- or prebiotics. Selecting animals for disease resistance may also affect disease incidence in a positive manner.......................

The immune system
The immune system is the host defence system against infectious diseases. Any immune response involves recognition of the pathogen or other foreign material and mounting a reaction against it to eliminate it. The immune responses can be divided in two linked systems, innate immunity and adaptive immunity. The early phase of a response, without prior exposure to a pathogen, depends on the innate immunity, whereas the adaptive immunity depends on specific responses of antigen specific lymphocytes, which are developed upon and after exposure to an antigen. The innate immune system is capable of removing the infectious agents shortly after the infection
through direct killing of the pathogen. The innate immune system also activates and regulates immune reactions of both the innate and the adaptive immune system by antigen presentation and production of effector molecules like cytokines. Elements of the innate immune system include: constant peristaltic flushing, barrier of mucus, the presence of bile salts and organic acids, antimicrobial peptides and defensins, resident microflora, cytokines, macrophages, heterophils, NK-cells and the complement system.
One of the mechanisms by which the innate immune system senses the invasion of pathogenic micro-organisms is through receptors that recognize specific molecular patterns that are present in microbial components,...........
........
In the intestine, multiple cell types are present that are involved in immune
responses, like intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), lymphocytes and macrophages. IECs have traditionally been regarded as passive cells primarily responsible for maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier. However, it is now widely appreciated that they are also important regulators of innate and acquired immunity (37, 134). IECs secrete chemicals harmful to bacteria, viruses, and parasites and provide early signals important for initiation and regulation of the inflammatory response following
invasions at the intestinal surface............................
......Intestinal macrophages regulate inflammatory responses to bacteria and antigens that have reached the epithelium, protect the mucosa against harmful pathogens, and scavenge dead cells and foreign debris..................
..... Complex interactions between lymphocytes, epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and resident macrophages are involved in both secretory Ig and mucin production during the host defence to generate a microenvironment incompatible with pathogen survival.......................

Environmental conditions
Stress, management conditions, nutrition, and age are examples of environmental conditions that may influence disease susceptibility. Stress is known to affect immune functions and infectious disease susceptibility in both humans and animals.....................
In chicken different kinds of stress are described that influence the immune system: social stress (aggressive pecks and fights), cold and heat stress, feed restriction, the lightning schedule and stocking density (41, 65, 66). Feed restricted birds show a reduction of in vitro lymphocyte proliferation and lymphoid organ weights, compared with birds fed ad libitum, suggesting higher disease susceptibility (66).
Also hatching conditions can influence disease susceptibility in chickens. Factors influencing the hatching process include storage conditions of the eggs, incubation time, temperature and relative humidity of the incubator and the brooding temperature..............
Dietary components as fatty acids, vitamins or minerals, and amino acid composition influence the immune function in chickens (86). The diet may also impact the incidence of infections by its functional characteristics in the lumen of the GI-tract. Physical and chemical aspects of the diet can modify the populations of micro-organisms in the GItract, the capacity of pathogens to attach to enterocytes and the integrity of the intestinal epithelium (87).
Also the condition of the mother hen can influence disease susceptibility of the offspring. Disease susceptibility in the chicks can be affected by altering nutrient levels in the diet of mother hens or with in ovo nutrient administration (86, 141). For instance the number of leukocytes increased in broilers descended from hens receiving additional vitamins and trace minerals (141). Furthermore the age of the mother hen can influence disease susceptibility of the offspring. In general chicks from younger hens are less fit than those from older hens (165). Also the age of the infected individual influences disease susceptibility. In general, young individuals are more susceptible to infectious diseases compared to older ones , due to an immature immune system
..........................
The chick's GI-tract undergoes dramatic changes within the first few days of life.......Shortly after hatch the gut is poorly populated by both innate immune leukocytes and lymphocytes (54). Also the microflora at hatch is quite different from the colonized gut. High levels of inflammatory responses were observed following an infection of newly hatched chicks whereas these responses were not observed following infectionof birds of 1 week old (199).

http://www.poultry-health.com/library/solvits.htm
Vitamins are organic compounds which are required in small amounts in the diet to support normal growth and development and a range of physiological functions. The table (see link) summarises the association of particular vitamins with certain problems which may be observed in poultry.

http://www.wattnet.com/Archives/Docs/03 ... N=74030876
Understanding Oxidative Rancidity In Poultry Feeds

For more information and articles :
http://dlhunicorn.conforums.com/index.c ... 1157992073

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PostPosted: Sat Nov 10, 2007 1:58 am 
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Showy Hen
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Nelly I forgot this:
http://www.poultry.uga.edu/soybeans/antinutritional.htm
Anti-Nutritional Factors
Compounds that interfere with the intake, availability, or metabolism of nutrients in the animal are referred to as anti-nutritional factors. Their biological effects can range from a mild reduction in animal performance to death, even at relatively small intakes. The subject is complicated by the fact that different species and ages react in different ways to the presence of anti-nutritional factors.......
..... The raw grain of soybean contains several anti-nutritional factors in variable amounts. Some of them are not important in monogastric animals, because they are not considered harmful for these species. Others, like phytate, are present in most vegetable materials and their negative effects can be overcome by using the appropriate technology (addition of phytase)....... Proper processing of soybeans requires precise control of moisture content, temperature and processing time to destroy the anti-nutritional factors. Both over and under-toasting of soybean meal can result in a meal of lower nutritional quality. Underheating produces incomplete inactivation of the anti-nutritional factors and over-toasting can reduce amino acid availability (lysine). The most important anti-nutritional factors to monogastric animals are:

Protease inhibitors: Protease inhibitors can inhibit the activity of proteolytic enzymes and can cause a decrease in digestive efficiency, inadequacy in dietary sulfur amino acids. As a consequence of inhibition of proteolytic enzymes the animals tend to react to the presence of protease inhibitors by secreting more digestive enzymes, which results in pancreatic hypertrophy. In poultry and swine, trypsin inhibitors significantly reduce the digestibility and utilization of amino acids. At least five trypsin inhibitors have been identified. However, the principal protease inhibitors present in raw or underprocedded soybeans are the Kunitz factor and the Bowman-Birk factor; the latter is more resistant to the action of heat, alkali and acid. Their average levels in raw soybeans are 1.4 and 0.6%, respectively.

Lectins: These are glycoproteins noted for their capability to agglutinate erythrocytes and bind sugar components. Lectin content in beans ranges from one to three percent. Lectins are not broken down in the gut, attach to mucosa cells damaging the intestinal wall and reducing the absorption of nutrients. Heat treatment is very effective and necessary in the inactivation of lectins.

Goitrogenic factors: These, similarly, are glycosides belonging to the isoflavinic group, some of which like genistin; have goitrogenic activity resulting in enlargement of the thyroid gland and a reduction in the activity of thyroxine secreted by the thyroid itself.

Saponins: Although they appear in low levels they can decrease feed palatability.

Rachitogenic factors: These factors are associated principally with genistin (about 0.10% of raw soybeans) which interfere with calcification of bone. Turkeys are particularly sensitive.

Phytic acid: Phytic acid complexes with certain minerals - such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron and zinc - reducing their bioavailability. Levels of phytate in soybeans range from 1.0 - 2.3 percent.

TANNINS:
http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/tox ... fects.html
"....In poultry, small quantities of tannins in the diet cause adverse effects

levels from 0.5 to 2.0% can cause depression in growth and egg production,
levels from 3 to 7% can cause death. ........"

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PostPosted: Sat Nov 10, 2007 11:30 pm 
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Golden Swan
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Thankyou for that! Great info.

NellyG

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PostPosted: Sat Nov 17, 2007 7:07 pm 
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Dapper Duck
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my chickens eat pellets :D love from Chickadede


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PostPosted: Mon Apr 07, 2008 12:22 pm 
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Gallant Game
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Hi Nelly,
I made up the rickets diet, for ill or off-colour birds, and it turned out a bit wet...is that ok? It's not really crumbly, I followed the directions... :?
Thanks, Georgia :P

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PostPosted: Mon Apr 07, 2008 5:22 pm 
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Hi Georgia,

I've only made it a few and I found it a bit gooey too! :lol: :lol: I added more rolled oats till it was a firmer consistency. The chook I gave it too was quite ill at the time and later died, unfortunately, but she LOVED it and really scoffed it down, so it seemed to work at perking up a sick chooks appetite.

NellyG

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Thankyou Nellyg for taking the time to reasearch all that information. I have bookmarked your post to keep on hand as a ready reference. Very informative. Thankyou again H7

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PostPosted: Tue May 20, 2008 11:03 am 
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Showy Hen
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Location: New Zealand
Quote:
Apple Cider vinegar (ACV)
Available for Stock Feed Stores (don't use the more refined version from the Supermarket).


Hi, can I ask why we shouldn't use the supermarket vinegar? Is it ineffective, or harmful?

Thanks!
Nicola

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PostPosted: Tue May 20, 2008 5:45 pm 
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Golden Swan
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Hi nicoladc,

No it's not harmful - just a lot of the 'good bits' have been refined out, so really all you are getting is an acid withougt much in the way of nutrients.

NellyG

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PostPosted: Tue May 20, 2008 6:48 pm 
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Showy Hen
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Thank you! Does the supermarket variety still work at reducing the likelihood of parasites?

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PostPosted: Tue May 20, 2008 7:17 pm 
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Golden Swan
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Hmmmm... No idea! :lol: :lol:

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PostPosted: Wed May 21, 2008 9:47 am 
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Champion Bird
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Please pretty please could you turn this into a sticky?


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PostPosted: Wed May 21, 2008 10:19 am 
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Great Game
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nicoladc wrote:
Thank you! Does the supermarket variety still work at reducing the likelihood of parasites?


Technically it should still work, because part of (or a lot of) what deters the parasites is the acidity... so supermarket variety 'should' still work.

You might end up paying more for supermarket stuff though. If you look at it, it is very clear... like clean clear water, just a different colour (am i making sense :? ) but if you can find the unrefined or less refined stuff, it has a kind of cloudy consistency..
Because we people are very picky, we tend to like the look of the 'clean and shiny' stuff... and hence, it is more expensive to produce because of the extra filtering.
But go for the cloudy, and there is far more nutrient and goodness left in.
:)


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