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PostPosted: Mon Dec 14, 2009 12:05 am 
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Turmeric - Curcuma longa, Curcuma domestica

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Introduction

Turmeric (Curcuma domestica, Curcuma longa) is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) and is thought to be indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. It is grown and harvested commercially in India, China, and many regions of tropical south Asia. Turmeric is best known for its culinary use as a major component of curry powder. In most countries turmeric is an approved food additive and is commercially available at low cost. It shows up as a coloring agent in items as diverse as pharmaceuticals, yellow mustards, and cosmetics, as well as in dyes for hair and fur. Indigenous systems of medicine, including the Chinese and Ayurvedic systems, have widely used turmeric for centuries in the treatment of many inflammatory conditions and diseases. In India, turmeric has traditionally been used primarily for arthritic and muscular disorders, while in China it has been used as a topical analgesic and for a range of other conditions.

Other names:

Haridra, haldi, Indian saffron, yellow ginger, jiang huang (rhizome), yu jin (root tuber)

Parts Used:

Dried rhizome, tuber

Selected Constituents:

Turmeric's active constituents are yellowish orange volatile oils called curcuminoids. There is currently great interest in the curcuminoid known as curcumin.

Used for:

Turmeric has anti-inflammatory properties and there is some early research that suggests that turmeric may be of benefit for the treatment of arthritis. There is also some studies that indicate it may be helpful for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer.

Turmeric has been given in the feed to improve broiler chicken performance as it improves the function of the gastrointestinal tract resulting in better feed conversion.

Turmeric extracts have a protective and anti-inflammatory effect on the liver when it has been damaged.

Historically and traditionally it has been used for many other reasons but as there is no research on those I haven't listed them here.

Dosage for Small Animals:

Dried herb: 50-600mg/kg, divided daily, three times per day, to maximum palatability tolerance.

Decoction: 5-30g per cup of water, administered at a rate of 1/4 - 1/2 cup per 10kg, divided daily (optimally 3 times per day), and diluted or combined with other herbs. Higher doses may be appropriate if the herb is used singly and is not combined in a formula.

For interest: Horses - Curcumin: 1200-2400 mg daily Canines - 50-250 mg TID; Feline - 50-100mg QD (Silver, 1997).

Clinical Actions

Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-platelet, cholagogue, hepatoprotective, anticancer, cholesterol reducing.

Toxicity Information:

Although the quality of the available clinical studies is questionable, turmeric appears generally safe.
Some contact dermatitis reactions have been reported.

Contraindications:

Turmeric should not be used for patients with gastrointestinal ulceration or hyperacidity, according to The Botanical Safety Handbook; however, it may protect against the development of ulcers. It is not recommended for those with gallstones or bile obstruction. Consult with medical professional before using in pregancy as it can be a uterine stimulant.

Drug Interactions:

Caution is advised with antiplatelet or anticoagulation medication.

Published Research Results:

Arthritis
Neither turmeric nor curcumin has been extensively studied in clinical trials. One human clinical trial compared curcumin 1200 mg/day with phenylbutazone 300 mg/day in 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis under double-blind conditions for an unspecified duration. Both curcumin and phenylbutazone improved morning stiffness, walking time, and swelling, but only phenylbutazone improved what the authors termed fatigue time. The investigators assessed both drugs as producing a significant difference and an overall improvement over baseline.

A research paper was published in 2003 by Innes. It related the outcomes of a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group clinical trial using Curcuma domestica as a treatment for patients with osteoarthritis of the canine elbow or hip. They were reexamined after 4, 6 and 8 weeks of treatment. The investigators assessments showed a statistically significant treatment result, however owners of the animals did not. Some animals being given both placebo and the Curcuma, had to be withdrawn due to deterioration of their condition. The results were not convincing in support of the curcumin for osteoarthritis, although further research is recommended.

Snake Venom Treatment
Jacome (2002) published findings that topical Turmeric extract was as effective as antivenom for treating dogs that had been envenomated with nonlethal doses of Bothrops alternatus snake venom.

Feed Additive
In broiler chickens, the effect of turmeric as a feed additive on performance was investigated. Turmeric was included in the diet at 0.25%, 0.5% and 1.0%. Birds fed turmeric had greater body weight gain at 0.5% followed by 0.25% and 1% compared with controls. Feed conversion of birds receiving 0.5% turmeric was best as compared with controls. Turmeric did not induce any abnormal flavour, colour or smell. (Al-Sultan, 2003)

Treatment for chronic anterior uveitis.
Research shows some improvements when used for treatment of uveitis, although standard medication produced much better results.

Coccidiostat
I found one study where turmeric was tested for cocidiostatic properties. In this study, at 3% additive in the feed, turmeric produced similar results to the coccidiostat - salinomycin sodium. This was just a brief summary of the research, rather than the full publication and it was the only reference I could find. Click Here to See it. I haven't tried this as coccidiosis kills too quickly to muck around with it, but I've included it here for interest's sake. None of my Herbal Veterinary Manuals or more reputable texts mentioned this, so I'm a bit sceptical. If anyone finds published research on this topic I would like to know about it.

Sources:
Wynn, S.G. & Fougere, B.J. (2007) Veterinary Herbal Medicine. Mosby Elsevier. Sydney
http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/406890
http://lib.vet.chula.ac.th/Data_files/e ... is/154.pdf
http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/repr ... l_1/65.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1394 ... dinalpos=6
Picture taken from Here

Disclaimer
All threads listed in this Index are the opinions of caring forum users. Backyard Poultry takes no responsibility for the accuracy of the information contained within, and if in doubt, always refer your poultry queries and problems to your vet.

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PostPosted: Mon Dec 14, 2009 9:17 am 
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*happy sigh*

I think I'm in love. I _adore_ clear, concise academic writing. This is worthy of a Cochrane review. In fact, it's very close to a Cochrane review.

That's interesting about its possible anti-cocci potential. I wonder if there'd be any harm adding some turmeric to medicated chick feed as an additional preventative?

It could also be tested on adults that have just started laying but been exposed to cocci; I wouldn't think it would have the same withholding requirements, and could be useful there. Again, as a strengthener/preventative, not full-on treatment. As you say, cocci kills too quickly to be mucking about testing in an active cocci situation.

But I might actually add some to my chicks' feed, as they're at that scary 5-week stage and we've had dodgy weather (hot-cold, dry-wet), and they're looking just a _tiny_ sleepy-eyed for my complete comfort. I'll let you know if there's any really demonstrable results. Apart from anything, if it results in better feed conversion for chicks, it may improve their immune systems overall and allow them to shake off a cocci attack better.

Also, it's quite easy to get turmeric in bulk from Indian grocery stores!!

Thank you, thank you!


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PostPosted: Mon Dec 14, 2009 9:35 am 
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:rofl: It's second nature to some of us, isn't it Info? Was it you who suggested we do Turmeric? I can't remember now.

Yes, I wish I had more time and a few subscriptions so I could go searching for more about the anti-cocci potential. If you find anything to add to this let us know. After reading up on turmeric I'd be happy to add it to chick feed. There was no mention anywhere of it interacting with other coccidiostats. In fact, it was given at the same time as salinomycin sodium in one of the samples with no adverse effects. There's no research that I can find on specific interactions apart from the anticoag meds and toxicity levels.

I do have some notes here that I didn't include in case it was a bit over-the-top, but you may be interested.

Quote:
Potential Drug Interactions: Caution is advised with antiplatelet or anticoagulation medication (I wonder if it's not a good idea to give garlic at the same time?? It would depend on exactly how it interacts with it.).

Toxocology and Adverse effects: one study evaluated the oral acute and 28-day feeding toxicity of turmeric powder in rats. The acute oral LD50 of turmeric powder was greater than 5000 mg/kg. No toxic effects were found through evaluation of clinical signs, body weight, feed consumption and efficiency, hematology, and autopsy in the turmeric- and curcumin-treated groups. No acute oral toxicity was observed, and the higher daily intake (1000 mg/kg) of turmeric for 28 days resulted in no significant toxic effects in rats (Liao, 2003).

Allergic dermatitis from turmeric has been reported. Reactions to patch testing occurred in persons regularly exposed to the substance and in those in whom dermatitis of the fingertips had already been diagnosed. Persons who were not previously exposed to the drug had few allergic reactions (Seetharam, 1987).


Those doses are massively higher than what I've quoted above from the Herbal Veterinary Manual. I know that's rats, but even so, it sounds pretty safe. Perhaps the only way to find out is to try it. Let us know how you go with it.

(For others reading LD50 means 'Medium Lethal Dose'. It's a term that's been used in research to describe the dose required to kill half the members of a tested population. It measures acute, not chronic toxicity. It's criticised as a measure, but a very low LD50 would be a concern.)

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PostPosted: Mon Dec 14, 2009 10:06 am 
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This is a brilliant summary. I'd never heard of turmeric having any other than culinary uses. Thank you for such a wonderful and informative round-up.
I've been able to grow turmeric fairly easily, so perhaps it could be added to quite a few backyard chook patches, with the root occasionally grated into the feed, maybe during the transition between starter and grower, or grower and final feed.


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PostPosted: Mon Dec 14, 2009 11:26 am 
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Chicken07 wrote:
:rofl: It's second nature to some of us, isn't it Info? Was it you who suggested we do Turmeric? I can't remember now.


Had to check your herbal remedies thread and yes, it was me.

I have some white chicks on the ground so I'll be able to see if the turmeric has any effect on their feather colour. As they're crossbreeds, and one's definitely a rooster, I'll hardly be fussed if they turn yellow or something :)

I'll just mix dried powder into their crumbles as is, and toss around, so they will end up with yellow faces *grin*

I might have to put some paper down to try and observe their droppings more effectively - they're on lucerne chaff which they eat by the kilo :roll: or I might not, so it's not a VERY controlled experiment ...


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PostPosted: Fri Apr 23, 2010 8:52 pm 
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I began looking for further information on turmeric as a coccidiostat and haven't found any, but I have found an article looking at another use for turmeric in broiler chickens:

Antioxidant efficacy of curcuminoids from turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) powder in broiler chickens fed diets containing aflatoxin B1
Nisarani K. S. Gowda, David R. Ledoux, Goerge E. Rottinghaus, Alex J. Bermudez and Yin C. Chen
British Journal of Nutrition , Volume 102 , Issue 11 , Dec 2009 , pp 1629-1634


Aflatoxin B1 is produced by aspergillus (the mildew causing aspergillosis). The authors fed the broilers a diet which contained 1.0 mg/kg of aflatoxin B1 (the AFB1 diet), presumably simulating mouldy food. They then used a range of different ratios of turmeric to food, and found that, "The addition of 74 and 222 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet significantly (P < 0ยท05) improved weight gain and feed efficiency." They also looked at the effect on liver growth, with an enlarged liver being a negative consequence of exposure to aflatoxin B1. 74, 222 and 444 mg/kg TCMN all had a statistically significant effect on reducing liver enlargement.

TCMN is not turmeric powder, it is "total curcurminoids". The turmeric powder they used contained 2.55% TCMN.

So if you get near the bottom of a feed bag and wonder if its been a tad damp, but aren't certain enough to warrant composting it, toss in some turmeric, maybe!


Another mould toxicity study attacked a mixture of mould toxins, with a mixture of herbs (as one does - a sort of team sports meets herbal medicine approach) and achieved pleasing results.

Effect of Toxiroak[R] polyherbal feed supplement during induced aflatoxicosis, ochratoxicosis and combined mycotoxicoses in broilers/Ucinak visebiljnoga pripravka Toxiroak[R] dodanoga hrani u tijeku izazvane aflatoksikoze, ohratoksikoze i kombiniranih mikotoksikoza u tovnih pilica.(Report).
Veterinarski Arhiv 77.2 (March-April 2007): p129(18).


The "polyherbal supplement" included "extracts of allium sativum, Azarirachita indica, Solanum nigram, Emblica officinalis, Curcuma longa and hydrated aluminosilicate", with Curcuma longa being turmeric . (If anyone has cuttings of aluminosilicate, let me know, as we don't have any in the herb garden at present).


Last edited by Kiwibird on Fri Apr 23, 2010 10:28 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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PostPosted: Fri Apr 23, 2010 9:04 pm 
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Turmeric "may" also slow the progression of Parkinson's Disease, which may be more use to my uncle than my chickens.

XVIII WFN World Congress on Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders Synopsis.(World Federation of Neurology)(Conference news).
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 10.3 (March 2010): p377(4).

and

Curcumin prevents dopaminergic neuronal death through inhibition of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway.(Report).
Rejuvenation Research 13.1 (Feb 2010): p55(10).

I'm starting to wonder if there is anything turmeric doesn't help with, and why I didn't eat any today. Here is an interesting abstract:

A polyphenolic compound from the curry spice turmeric, curcumin, is known to show anti-viral activity against the influenza virus, adenovirus, coxsackievirus, and the human immunodeficiency virus. However, it remains to be determined whether curcumin can inhibit the replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). In this study, we showed that curcumin decreases HCV gene expression via suppression of the Akt-SREBP-1 activation, not by NF-[kappa]B pathway. The combination of curcumin and IFN[alpha] exerted profound inhibitory effects on HCV replication. Collectively, our results indicate that curcumin can suppress HCV replication in vitro and may be potentially useful as novel anti-HCV reagents.

From:

Curcumin inhibits hepatitis C virus replication via suppressing the Akt-SREBP-1 pathway.(Report).
FEBS Letters 584.4 (Feb 19, 2010): p707(6).

Aaah! Turmeric also inhibits angiogenesis. Now if you think angiogenesis is what Angie is short for, and you don't want anyone inhibiting her, that is what we now call an "epic fail". As it turns out angiogenesis is the production of new blood vessels, such as those that might help a cancerous tumour to grow. This stuff really may fix anything, and I'm off to the kitchen to look for some now...

Dietary factor combinations and anti-angiogenesis.
Bulletin of the New Jersey Academy of Science 54.1 (Spring 2009): p1(7).

Heaps more about turmeric and cancer in another article, which also lists the following properties for turmeric: " It has a wide range of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, wound healing, and antimicrobial effects (198). It also exhibits strong antioxidant activity, comparable to vitamins C and E. It has been shown to have several clinical applications due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties."

(Just munching some dry from the packet right now...)

(OK, not really!)


Cancer chemoprevention through dietary antioxidants: progress and promise.
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 10.3 (March 2008): p475(36).

A lengthy article using mild words like "inhibits" (rather than grunty words like "eradicates", "exterminates" or "annihilates") overviews lots of medicinal uses for turmeric, including antibiotic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic. The turmeric evidently has a potentiation effect on some antibiotics, increasing their efficacy against resistant strains of bacteria. Statistics are not given.

(No turmeric was harmed during the reading of this article)


A curry a day keeps the doctor away.
Journal of Continuing Education Topics & Issues 9.2 (April 2007): p66(7).

Here is an article I haven't found yet, but it popped up in the references for something else, so I will put it here in case any of us find the actual thing. Looks interesting.

Samarasinghe, K., C. Wenk, K. F. S. T. Silva and J. M. D. M. Gunasekera. 2003. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) root powder and mannanoligosaccharides as alternatives to antibiotics in broiler chicken diets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(10):1495-1500.


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PostPosted: Sun Apr 25, 2010 11:37 am 
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Nice work! I have GOT to get me some bulk turmeric ... I keep forgetting when I'm in the Indian grocery stores!


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PostPosted: Sun Apr 25, 2010 9:58 pm 
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Currently of all the herbs I have ever read about, this one appears to have the broadest range of uses which have been borne out by research. Maybe it is just that its reputation hasn't surpassed its effectiveness yet, but I am not seeing the papers where researchers tried things and they didn't work after all.


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PostPosted: Mon Apr 26, 2010 11:32 am 
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Kiwibird,
If there is a chance that turmeric will stave off Parkinson's, then I may well provide it to the Grand Old Dame, a Belgian D'Uccle who may be 10 years old... never mind your uncle. :D

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PostPosted: Thu Sep 16, 2010 10:36 pm 
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Given that Sulphaquin is going to be harder to get now, might be time to start experimenting with this ... !


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